Hamburg, The Greenest City In Germany
Hamburg is the name of one of the 16 federal states of Germany. As territory is the same as the city, meaning with the state-city official called “Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg” (“Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg” in German). The Mayor is also the president of the land government, government which in Hamburg is called Senate. The official name of the city refers to its links with the Hanseatic League.
Currently it is the main port in Germany. It has 1.8 million inhabitants and is the second city in number of population in Germany and seventh in the European Union. It is the heart of the European metropolitan region of Hamburg, with an area of 750 km². At Maschen, south of the city, is the largest rail bus yard in Europe.
The city is found in northern Germany, at the mouth of the rivers Alster and Bille in the river Elba. Tidal river port lies mainly on the southern shore of the northern arm, across the street from Altona and St. Pauli neighborhoods. The banks are connected by bridges and through the old Elbe tunnel and new tunnels. To the north and south of the river land is a high meadow (Geest), of sand and debris, arisen from the ice ages. Low Meadow (Marsch) of sand and silt from the river nearby is the result of centuries of flooding caused by tidal waves.
Both sides are now dammed, the old piers remember of times when entire neighborhoods sat underwater. The two lakes in the city center are due to the dam of the river Alster, the large (Aussenalster) and the small (Binnenalster, surrounded by the historic city center). In the downtown area, tributaries, and Alster itself, and edges are partly channeled by public parking lots. The multitude of rivers and channels (called Fleet, and Kanal) are crossed by 2,500 bridges, being the city with most of Europe, more than Venice (400), Amsterdam (1200) and London together.
Hamburg’s current borders were barely established on 1 April 1937 (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz). The city is both the surface and in population the second in Germany. It is bounded to the north of Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen in south. It belongs administratively to the “Hamburg Mitte”, Neuwerk islands, Scharhörn, and the national park Nigehörn Hamburgisches Wadden Sea at the mouth of the Elbe.
Hamburg is divided into seven sectors. Each district has a parliament (assembly sector), with very restricted administrative rights. The sectors are subdivided into districts, a total of 104. The area near the center is usually administered directly by the central offices, the other one of a total of 15 local offices. Because of the maritime influence the clime is gentler than in Eastern Europe. Hot month is July (average 17.4 °), the cold one is January (average 1.3 °). Temperatures of 28 ° in mid-summer are not a rarity. Since 1990 there have been, perhaps because of global warming, extreme environmental temperatures (37.3 ° in August 9, 1992).
The average annual rainfall reached 774 mm, the fog lasts 52 days. Winter storms may occur. The climate is wet throughout the year. Hamburg was the 17th largest city in Germany, not being affected by the war of 30 years. The greatest number of people had in 1964 (1.9 million). Population migrated to surrounding areas and established new ones predominantly led to decline to 1.6 million in 1986. It rose again to 1744215 (November 2005). For the next 20 years is expected to increase up to 2 million people in population, which would mean for Hamburg: Germany’s most dynamic metropolis. In December 2004, 255070 inhabitants had a foreign passport, almost 14.9% of the population.
The city has a strong Evangelic-Lutheran influence from the Reformation (37% of the population in 2002). As an important port it was open for a long time for other denominations. Here occurred for example in 1834 the first “Baptist community” (German). It is an important place for “apostolic communities.” Here they parted “Christian Apostolic Mission Overview” of “Catholic Pastoral Communities” and developed “nine Apostolic Church.” From 1995 established “the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg” with the center of the cathedral St. Marien. In 2003 the proportion of Roman Catholics was 10.3%.
In addition to 1960 are on a high proportion of Muslim and Jewish communities, a thriving community. On 22 June 1957 was inaugurated in Stellingen, by the Ahmadiyya-Muslim community, the first mosque in Germany after the Second World War. It is also the birthplace of the movement “Jesus Freaks.” Until the nineteenth century the current language in Hamburg was “Northern German” (Niederdeutsch), belonging to the German language course. In the mid-twentieth century “German standard (Hochdeutsch)” since the sixteenth century increasingly used in the written version, practically took place.
Dialect “Hamburger Platt” is further understood and spoken by many Hamburgers and, like other northern dialects, cultivated through literature, newspaper articles, dictionaries. There are differences between the dialects as in Hamburg, Bremen or at the “Plattdeutsch” in other northern regions. Influence of “North German” on “Standard German” remains strong, particularly in “Missingsch” (mixture of Hamburg-Bremen in space, especially in speaking in church).
The most popular place for the cultivation of these dialects is Ohnsorg Theater. Through immigration after 1960 in various countries, in many districts were constituted socio-linguistic areas, where often, in addition to German and other languages can be heard: in the Portuguese port, Turkish and Kurdish in Altona, St. Georg, Wilhelmsburg and Veddel. The earliest settlements date from the 4th century before Christ. Between 4 and 6 centuries Saxons are coming in northern Germany. In 810, for the missionary of the pagans Carol the Great raises a baptizer (church of baptism). To ensure this Hammaburg castle is built.
In 831 Louis the Pious establishes a ward, which comes shortly archbishop. After the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the region is in turn invaded by Vikings and Slavs and the Archbishop moves to Bremen. Due to the port and commercial privileges granted by Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa in 1189 on the entire region of the bottom of the Elbe, the city flourished during the Middle Ages as a commercial center and main producer of beer Hans (600 plants). In the 14th century as one of the oldest members of the Hanse, Hamburg warehouse becomes the most important place of trade between the North Sea and Eastern Europe.
Being a land (German federal state), political power in Hamburg is also represented in the Bundesrat (Federal Council) German in Berlin, capital of Germany. Currently (2010) in Hamburg is in power a coalition between the CDU and Green parties, the coalition called “black-green”. On November 29th 2010 Greens said they would leave the coalition. Thus, they will probably be needed for new elections, probably February 20, 2011, for which the Greens intend to ally, this time with the Social Democrats.
According to current assessments, the coalition will have good chances of success in elections. In this way the CDU will probably lose power in Hamburg, but also representative of the Bundesrat. Thus, the current government coalition of factions CDU / CSU and the Liberals (FDP) in the federation (Bund) and will suffer, further weakening the government of Angela Merkel.
Hamburg is located almost 101 km from the sea on the river Elbe. The largest city – port of Germany (and second largest in Europe after Rotterdam) is also the greenest city in Germany. 13% of the city consists of parks and green spaces, protected rural areas 26% and 6% nature reserves. Two thirds of the city is covered by parks, lakes and canals lined with trees, giving a refreshing rural atmosphere. Hamburg skyline is dominated by the pale green copper domes and spirals, but only a few houses and churches were left before the last century. Great Fire of 1842 was the main cause of these losses, followed by the demolition that took place in deposits, and bombing during the Second World War.
Although trade is the strength of the city, there are many cultural attractions, as the hometown of Johannes Brahms. Do not miss St. Jacobi, who has a special shrine from the fifteenth century, and the baroque church of St. Michael, which has a 134m coil that offers a view of the city. Also do not miss a great building – Rathaus – a hall supported by dozens of pillars. Hamburg is also a fun city, and breweries, St. Pauli district and numerous parks and Lake Alster, worth exploring, and the city’s famous fish market has more to offer than just fish.
Hamburg city – the port over 64 miles of canals and 2,500 bridges has an independent entrepreneurial spirit, closing most of being a city state – of all German cities. But it’s nice to watch huge cargo ships that float on the Elbe to load or unload. You can make day trips to Lubeck, Bremen or Schwerin cities or, if you have several days to provide, to the famous centers of relaxation of the North Sea or Baltic Sea.
The largest port, most media outlets, the largest recreational area, the largest deposits, the most famous musicals – Hamburg is a city of superlatives. Hamburg is needed to discover all that much time talking about the second land of small dimensions in Germany. Like Bremen, Hamburg is a “Free Hanseatic City” (with the status of land). As size is the second largest city in Germany, economic and cultural center in the northern part of the country. The city has a population of approx. 1.7 million inhabitants, of different nationalities (over 180). Most large communities of foreigners are Turkish, Polish, Afghan, and Serbian.
Hamburg is also called “the gateway to the world.” The port- city is the third largest in Europe and provides 150,000 jobs. After a brief journey through the port, anyone can get an idea of its size and activity. To be noted as the main tourist attractions: the City Hall of Hamburg and the famous church St. Michaelis (called “Michel”) – symbol of the Hanseatic city, Chilehaus – office building in the shape of a ship or the famous Speicherstadt warehouse complex.
With rich cultural activity and over 20 theaters, Hamburg, Germany stands as the city’s music. Theater Ohnsorg whose performances are held only in “Platt Deutsch” (German archaic), is the most renowned institution of its kind in the country. The first opera in Germany was founded in 1678 in Hamburg. Hamburg is Germany’s media metropolis institutions. In the Hanseatic city have their headquarters the known publication “Der Spiegel” weekly newspaper “Die Zeit”, the big publishers and media companies. In the industry work 130,000 employees.
If you intend to go on a vacation in Hamburg, sightseeing care that you may want to visit you can leave it at home because from April to October season guided walks through the most beautiful corners of the city is open. Each tour begins daily at 4:00, Saturday at 2:30 and lasts about two hours. To participate you must not register in advance as seats are available for any tourist. In Hamburg-guided tours you can visit the great houses of merchants, some interesting history of the city. Departures for this area are held every Monday at Kaufhof.
Other two destinations include walks in the cities Speicherstadt and HafenCity. Old for almost a century, Speicherstadt is the oldest deposit built at the beginning of the century. Located in the open port of Deichtorhallen and Baumwall, near another place worth visiting, HafenCity, warehouse stores today coffee, tea, tobacco, oriental carpets and computers. Departures take place Tuesday from Baumwall subway station, exit to Speicherstadt. Enthusiasts can also choose to walk the red district of Hamburg, an unusual output in the historical center of prostitution.
You can see hundreds if not thousands of trains that circulate in all directions, even in surprising places (for example, on a scale of access between floors, a stage is made of inside the glass and it is mounted on a rail travel). On highways and streets in cities are many cars, many of them equipped with engine and circulate back and forth.
The designers have given proof of how much patience to achieve thorough cover of so many things very small, much imagination and inventiveness, cynicism by submitting dead people, cemeteries, funerals, executions and serious traffic accidents and even humor by placing the jack naked or having sex pairs by bush. The most interesting place is the chocolate factory, where you can see a line of manufacturing and packaging of tablets of chocolate, and where the end point is outside the layout, tablet automatically giving you a gift.
Children have a special room with interactive games and a small cinema. If you decide to go visit the museum you have to break at least about 3 hours in the program, and if you are with children, secure a 5-6 hours stay. The ticket costs 10 euros per adult and 5 euros per child. For children who have less than 1 meter high access is free. Hamburg has a specific site completely different from cities in southern Germany, and from them, is a cosmopolitan city, full of life, locals and tourists of all nations. It is located on the banks of the Elbe, to say the many branches of this river and lakes formed by the banks. It has over 2,200 bridges and is said to have more bridges than Venice and Amsterdam combined.
The airport is located in the city, and until the center is 40 minutes by subway. From the airport to downtown will cost you 20 euros by taxi and about 3 euro metro. They have a very extensive underground network, transport and recommend that way, because you can admire the landscape and you can get through all areas of the city. In its combined rail travel on the underground, underwater, on the surface, suspended, etc. The problem would be price: the cheapest ticket is at 1, 3 euro and you are going only about three stations.
I think that’s why they love the bike, besides the fact that they do move. The bicycle is a very attractive solution to visit the city, because they feature all sorts of cyclists. Traffic in town seems ok. So one little park on the street, and police did not have mercy on those who do not pay parking.
Maritime Museum – arranged in a building with 10 floors. Very interesting but you need a whole day to see it. It has everything you want and think about seafaring vessel built there in this world that does not have layout here. Clip-Museum – Do not duck, it’s great: hundreds of electric trains and cars, cities, monuments, whole areas of the world all in miniature, interactive models, light, play with the movie for children. Rickmers-Rickmer ship – located in the port, 120 years old, very beautiful, with restaurant. It is worth visiting. Cap-ship San Diego – modern vessel, located in the port with hotel and restaurant. Dusty, muddy, twisty. Canal-cruise port – see dock, repair yards, a lot of boats of all sizes, panorama seen from the town of Elba. Cruise on the canals of the city – great.
Cliff (area between Landungsbrucke and Baumwall) – beautifully arranged, see the entire panorama of the Elbe and the port, the ships and tourists swarm, bars and colorful souvenir shops. Landungsbrucke-tunnel – actually consists of two parallel tunnels, 150 years old, under the Elbe. What is interesting is the access from each end: one for four elevators, and one for cars and cyclists. Bunker – a building made of concrete, very solid, unbreakable, unfinished, with walls 3-4 feet thick, very ugly, visit only on the outside. It was built by Hitler as the last of a series of eight buildings built all over Germany, to resist the allied bombing. It was preserved as a symbol of war.
Amusement-park – located downtown, attractive, perfect beauty, perfect high, but is open only during the holidays. Here you must have a serious budget as all the attractions. Cathedral St. Michael (the tower is 120 meters high, is clock cathedral with the largest diameter in Europe, you may go for a panorama of the city. St. Nikolaus (bombed and destroyed in the war, remained alone in its tower and some walls, preserved as a symbol of war / free).
Rathaus (town hall) and Marienbrucke Street commercial area – actually an entire neighborhood is full of quality shops, with high prices and even large perfect if you are not lucky enough to hit the discount period. Stadium-Nordbank Arena Hamburg SV team – if you want to see a modern stadium, with museum, restaurant, gift shop. Planetarium – impressive, instructive, worth visiting. Zoo and Aquarium – you can see what it really means a zoo, a very big, very airy, with no cages or bars, with lots of interactive stuff, with attractions for children, wild animals that move freely among men. The Aquarium is located inside the zoo, but is paid separately. Very nice, worth seeing.
Do not miss the small restaurants with Turkish, Greek or Portuguese, where the food is very good and reasonably priced, owners and staff is actually from those countries. There are restaurants of all kinds. Beer is expensive. Do not be afraid to speak your language in public. There are many nations in Hamburg and no one cares about that.11