New York City, The Largest Urban Area In The World
New York City, official name “The City of New York”, is the most populous city in the U.S. zone mainland and one of the largest urban areas in world. It is located in the State of New York, and it has the status of the largest city in the United States since 1790; it is also the first capital city of the state the place where George Washington was appointed as the first President of the United States. For more than a century it was one of the major world centers of commerce and finance.
New York is also considered one of the most important cities in the world because of its global influence in media, education, entertainment, art and fashion. The city is also a major center for foreign affairs, hosting the United Nations headquarters.
New York is divided into five areas: Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens and the island Staten Island. With over 19.2 million residents over an area of 830 km ², New York is the metropolis with the highest population density in the United States. Many city neighborhoods and landmarks have a great popularity around the world.
The Statue of Liberty received millions of immigrants who came to America in the late nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century; Wall Street in Manhattan is an important financial center since the time of the Second World War; the American Stock Exchange is based in New York (NYSE). The city also hosts some of the tallest buildings in the world, including the Empire State Building. World Trade Center twin towers in Manhattan were destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Lower Manhattan was in 1660 part of New Amsterdam. The region was inhabited by approximately 6000 Native Americans “lenapi”, at the time of its discovery in 1524 by Giovanni de Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, who called it “Nouvelle Angoulême” (New Angoulême). European Installation began with the founding of a Dutch settlement in 1614 that deals with the fur trade, later called “Nieuw Amsterdam” (New Amsterdam), located in southern Manhattan.
The colonial director-general Dutchman Peter Minuit, bought Manhattan Island later in 1626, offering instead 60 guilderi (name of Dutch gold coins). Legend, now known as false, claims that the area Minuit had bought worth $24 of glass beads. In 1664, the city was conquered by the British and renamed New York after the English Duke of York and Albany. At the end of the Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch gained control of Run island (which at that time was more important), but getting New York England.
By 1700, the population fell to 200 lenapis. New York’s importance as a trading port increased during British rule. Columbia University was founded in 1754, during King George II. The city became the venue of several major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American War of Independence. Continental Congress later met in New York, and in 1789 became the first U.S. president, George Washington at Federal Hall, Wall Street. During the nineteenth century the town was heavily transformed because of immigration and development. In 1835 New York already had exceeded the Philadelphia population, making it the largest city in America.
New York City is located in the northeastern United States, and southeastern New York State, approximately midway between Washington DC and Boston. The area at the mouth of the Hudson River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city to grow in importance in terms of trade. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island and Long Island, so its surface is dispersed, helping to increase density.
Hudson River, flows through the Hudson Valley and New York Bay. From New York City and Troy (a small town in New York) it turns into a river estuary. The Hudson separates the city from New Jersey. East River flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Manhattan from the Bronx and Long Island. Harlem River, which lies between the East River and Hudson River, separates The Bronx from Manhattan. The land has been altered considerably by people across the waters extending from the earth since the time of Dutch colonies.
Extension of the earth’s surface is most pronounced in Lower Manhattan, with areas like Battery Park City in 1970 and 1980. Some of the natural variations in topography have also been smoothed in Manhattan. The city covers a land area of 831.4 km ². The highest point in the city is Todt Hill in Staten Island, which is at 124.9 m above sea level, which is also the highest point on the east coast, south of Maine.
Although located at about the same latitude as other European cities whose climate is warmer, such as Naples and Madrid, New York has a humid continental climate, this being due to cold air currents coming from central North America. New York winters are cold, but because it is a coastal city, temperatures are relatively higher than those from inland, so helping to moderate snow, which varies between 63.5 and 88.9 cm each year.
The temperature ranges springs and autumns in New York, which may vary from snow and cold weather to hot weather and humid, although they can be cool and rainy days. Summer is hot and humid, with temperatures reaching 32 ° C or more. Although not usually associated with hurricanes, New York is vulnerable to this type of phenomena, from Norfolk and Long Island Hurricane of 1821 is a good example.
Empire State Building and Chrysler Building are some of the best examples of Art Deco architecture. Building type most commonly associated with New York is skyscrapers. In New York there are about 4493 skyscrapers, more than any other city in the world. Being almost entirely surrounded by water, high density and commercial capabilities in its various areas of the city led to the largest number of office buildings and apartment buildings in the world.
Buildings in New York have many important architectural styles. Among them is Woolworth Building (1913), a Gothic-style skyscraper that has many more large-scale characteristic of this style, which can be seen from a few hundred meters away. In 1916 it was taken to limit the Zoning Reform skyscraper construction in a certain percentage over a defined area to allow sunlight to reach the bottom level. Construction of the Art Deco style Chrysler Building (1930) with its conical peak of the cupola of steel is one of the buildings comply with the proposed Zoning Reform.
The building is considered by many historians as the greatest building of the New York City, with its distinctive ornamentation. An extremely important example of international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), standing out because of its facade whose bronze-colored beams are allowed to view. Condé Nast Building (2000) is an example of skyscraper built in the style green or eco style in America.
New York is made up of five administrative areas (English: boroughs), a peculiar form of government. These areas are also in turn made up of thousands of neighborhoods, many of which have their own history and signature. If these areas were independent cities, four of them (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan and The Bronx) would be among the top ten most populated cities in the United States.
The Bronx (pop. 1,373,659) is what lies at the northernmost point of the city. It is also the home of the baseball team New York Yankees, hosts their stadium, Yankee Stadium. Except for a small portion of Manhattan, Marble Hill namely, the Bronx is the only part of town that is located in the continental United States (all other administrative units Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn and Staten Island are built on islands). In Bronx you may also find the Bronx Zoo, the largest zoo within a city located in the United States, it occupies a surface of 107.2 hectares with over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip-hop culture.
Manhattan (pop. 1,620,867) is the most densely populated of the five areas and the place where you can meet most of New York skyscrapers and Central Park. In the north (close to the Bronx) is Harlem neighborhood. Manhattan is the city’s financial center and home to many corporate headquarters, the United Nations and several major universities. Manhattan is the oldest settlement in New York and may be viewed as being the core of New York. It is located on an island – Manhattan Island.
Brooklyn (or Kings) (pop. 1,373,659) is the most populous administrative area of the city, and was a city in its own right until 1898. Brooklyn is known for its diverse cultural, ethnic and social, and its distinctive neighborhoods. This area has a beach that extends over a large area and comprises of Coney Island, established in 1870. Long Island is located on the island.
Queens (pop. 2,270,338) is the largest borough area of the US. The first European settlers were the Dutch who have established a number of villages and towns in what is now, today being the second largest borough in terms of population after Brooklyn. It is located on the island of Long Island.
Staten Island (or Richmond) (pop. 481,613) is the most recent and least populated area of New York (more than 100 years) and is linked to the rest of the metropolis through the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, which links to Brooklyn and the Staten Island ferry that connects Manhattan.
New York is the most populous city in the United States in 2007 to an estimated population of 8,274,527 (in 1990 it was 7.3 million). This represents approximately 40% of the total population of New York, and a similar percentage of the total metropolitan population. In the last decade, the city’s population increased, demographers estimating that New York’s population will reach 9.2 to 9,500,000 by 2030.
Two of the important demographic characteristics of the city are density and diversity. New York’s density is 10,194 inhabitants per km², making it the municipality with 100,000 inhabitants with the highest density in the United States. In Manhattan the density reached 25 846 inhabitants per km², the largest of any county in USA.
New York has an overwhelming diversity. Throughout its history, it has been a city of immigrants setting. Today, 36% of its population was born in another country. The only American cities that exceed this proportion are Los Angeles and Miami.
However, while these cities are the majority nationality in New York immigrants from any single country or region are not the majority. Top 10 countries of origin of most immigrants is the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Guyana, Pakistan, Ecuador, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Russia. Approximately 170 languages are spoken in New York.
Crime has soared in the 1980s and early 1990s, following the crack epidemic that hit the city, but by the beginning of the twenty-first century crime rate has seen a dramatic drop in 2005 and the city is recognized as having the highest low crime rate of all 25 major U.S. cities In 2002 New York had almost the same crime rate as Provo city, Utah State, and was ranked as the 197th in terms of crime, from all the 216 American cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. Violent crimes dropped by more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, continuing to decline, while the rest of the country increased.
In 2005 the number of homicides reached its lowest level since 1963. In 2007, in New York there were fewer than 500 homicides for the first time since data have been published about the crime rate in 1963. Sociology and criminology have failed to reach an answer on why this city has seen a dramatic decrease in crime rate. Some attribute to this phenomenon are the new measures taken by the New York City Police Department. Others explain that the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes would be the cause.
Organized crime has always been associated with New York, Forty Thieves and groups from Roach Guards in the Five Points, Manhattan, in 1820. The twentieth century has seen an increase in power Mafia dominated by the Five Families. Groups including the Black Spades also grew in the late twentieth century.
The city’s public school system is the largest in the US. Around 1.1 million students study in over 1,200 different schools. There are approximately 900 private schools, some of which are among the most prestigious in the U.S. Although not specifically seen as a city focused on education in New York are about 594,000 university students, more than any other city in the United States. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one in four had training specialized, forming one of the largest number of residents with higher education in any other American city.
New York Public Library, with the largest public library system in the country, serves Manhattan, Bronx and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, which is the second largest public library system, serves Brooklyn and the Brooklyn Public Library. New York Public Library also has several research libraries, including Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
New York is the location of two of the busiest subway stations in the U.S., including Grand Central Terminal. Transportation is by far the principal mode of travel of New York. Approximately one in three people use public transport in the United States, and two-thirds of travelers staying in New York subway and its suburbs. This is in contrast with the rest of the country, where 90% of the population use cars to get own way at work. New York is the only U.S. city where more than half the population does not have a car. In Manhattan, more than 75% of residents did not have the car, at the national level the percentage is 8%.
Empire State Building – the architect’s desire was that the skyscraper, built in 1931, look like a pencil. By building the platform are exactly 576 steps. It has a height of 381 m. Chrysler Building – reinforced steel tower building was built in 1930 in Art Deco style. It has a height of 319 m. Brooklyn Bridge – Bridge construction was begun in 1883 by architect John Roebling. There were 20 workers died. Currently they measured 1.8 km of bridge, the pillars of being 70 meters tall.
Statue of Liberty – the copper statue was erected, with a delay of 10 years, on Liberty Island in 1886, a gift of friendship from the French. It is measured at 47 m. The base of granite to gold Torch ascends to heaven by another 46 m. Flatiron Building – this building is the oldest skyscrapers of New York, was built in 1902 by architect Daniel Burnham in Chicago. Rockefeller Center – located between 47th and 52nd Street is often called a “city within a city” because it is composed of 19 skyscrapers that are bound together by underground passages. The bronze statue of Prometheus, 6 m high dominates the Lower Plaza.11