Travel Guides: Australia
Australia is the only country that occupies an entire continent, being the largest in Australasia / Oceania. As surface in the world rankings, Australia is ranked sixth.
Besides the mainland, Australia comprises several islands, of which the largest is the island state of Tasmania. Australia is a federation and a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Australia was originally used by the British authorities to deport prisoners of common law. On 13 May 1787, an English fleet leaves from the port of Portsmouth for Australia, commanded by Arthur Phillip, who was to be the first Governor of the colony. It had about 1,000 people on board. After a journey of nearly eight months he reached Botany Bay in the south, on 21 January 1788, naming the source of water found there Sydney, after the name of the Minister of Colonies.
The beginning is hard, the stocks from England ended quickly and the crop failed to catch due to existing drought. A boat is sent in Batavia to bring supplies for the necessary rations for prisoners, and the crisis will be resolved. A second fleet will arrive in 1792 to Botany Bay. If at first the relations with Aborigines are good, they will gradually break, leading to the massacres in particular from the white population. The imaginary that the English has over Botany Bay is twofold: on the one hand it is the most awful place where prisoners could go, and on the other hand it is seen as a location for a new beginning. An important minority which has from the start a special status is the Irish Catholic, in permanent conflict with the British.
Relations with Aborigines are initially good materialized in small exchanges, but soon will start the massacres on both sides. The English population, aware of their superiority, will gradually become an assimilation force. It is formed a second settlement in Paramatta. Francis Gros is the second governor, which has an important role in agricultural development and trade. After release, prisoners are hired as laborers on the farms of the officers, no longer wanting to be repatriated to their country of origin. It is the signal belonging to a new civilization, but at that time, the name of the colony is New South Wales. Besides the clashes with the Aborigines, the English are in a perpetual conflict with Catholic Irish.
One of their rebellions in March 1804 led to the killing of top leaders of the Irish and momentary calming the spirits. The economy gradually increases, especially due to the huge quantities of wool grain exported. Australia is the world’s sixth largest country and the smallest continent. It is also the lowest and flattest stretch of land and driest continent. It contains more desert than any other continent: two thirds of the surface is arid or semiarid. It has a short coastline to an area so large: outside the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Great Australian golf, there are few bays along the total of 19,000 km of coastline. The continent lacks clearly forms of relief: no major rivers and mountains are of low height.
The highest Australian peak is Peak Koscinsko from the Australian Alps on the border between New South Wales and Victoria has a height of only 2.228 m, less than half the height of Mont Blanc. The continent can be divided into three main regions: the Western Australian Shield, Eastern Plateau and Great Artesian Basin. Shield is a plateau which largely overlaps with the State of Western Australia, consisting mainly of rock outcrops 5,703,000 million years old. The most notable of these outcrops are the Peninsula Arnhem and Kimberley Plateau in north-west. Eastern Plateau is a mountainous region with a width of about 500 km, forming the Great Mountains Watershed. Highest peaks have an altitude of just 1,500 m. New England Mountains and Southern Blue Mountains heights are between 900 and 1500 m.
Between the Western Shield and Eastern Plateau are three indoor pools – Murray Basin, Carpentaria Basin, Eyre Basin. These are called together the Great Basin fountain, which have mostly less than 300 m above sea level. In the north, the larger part of the basin Carpentaria is flooded by Carpentaria Gulf. Eyre Basin contains Lake Eyre, which is 15 m below sea level the lowest in Australia. The intersection of Simpson Desert with the inner basins physical distinctions blur between these regions. In Australia, volcanic activity has ceased only in the last million years and there are plenty of seismic activity in Eastern and Western Plateau.
Australia’s other major geographical feature is the sea next to the Queensland tropical coast. Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reefs in the world, has a length of over 2,000 km and is clearly visible from space. Neighbors of Australia: In north the states: Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea; large islands to the north, north-west: Sumatra, Borneo, Java, New Guinea and Timor; South: Antarctica; North-East, Pacific Islands; South East: New Zealand. Australia comprises six states and several territories. The six states are: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia.
Among the most important areas are: Northern Territory (NT) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Cities: Canberra; Sydney; Melbourne; Adelaide; Perth; Brisbane; Hobart; Darwin. Most of Australia is very dry. In the summer, which lasts from December to February, there are frequent heat waves and temperatures generally reach 38 degrees Celsius. Some parts are wet, in general on the eastern coastal regions and Tasmania Island. The unpleasant effects are to some attenuation of Western cool breezes blowing throughout the year. In limited areas of South Australia and Western Australia, dry winter from June to August, alternate wet summers from November to March.
North-western coast is tropical wet summers and dry winters: there are tropical rains and monsoon conditions prevail. Tasmania Island and Koscinsko Peak have snowy lands in winter, however, in other parts, snow is extremely rare. Northern city of Darwin has an average temperature of 30 degrees Celsius in summer and 27 in the winter, the average rainfall being 150 cm, mostly falling in summer. In Sydney, the north-east coast, the precipitated amount is about 120 cm, falling all year. The coolest point of the country is Hobart in Tasmania, with an average temperature of 17 degrees Celsius in summer and 12 in the winter.
In Perth, Western Australia, fall about 90 inches of rain per year and average temperatures are 23 degrees Celsius (January) and 13 (July). The vegetation is dominated by hard-leaved perennial with leaves adapted for surviving in arid regions. There are 600 species of eucalyptus and 800 acacia species. Growing areas of Australia are broadly consistent with climatic zones. Tropical forests on the coast north and north-west contain palms, pines, tree ferns and mangroves in coastal marshes. About 9% of Australia’s surface is covered with subtropical and temperate forests, more frequent on the east coast, consisting of palm trees, tree ferns and eucalyptus. Western slopes of the Great Mountains Watershed contain subtropical to temperate forests of eucalyptus and shrubs, covering 9% of the land.
Plain, south of the Tropic of Capricorn and savanna forest to the north, constitute 26% of the continent. In dry regions are scattered small plants such as beets and fruit bushes. Australia’s most arid regions contain plant milking, a tree with a very important forage. In the south-west grow valuable trees with valuable hardwoods such as Jarre and Kaur. The Western Australian Depression is hard rock, very old, and occupies almost the entire state of Western Australia and adjacent parts of the Northern Territory and South Australia. Raised above the depression, there are several mountain ranges, such as Kimberley and Hamersley and isolated outcrops of rocks, such as Mount Ayers.
UNESCO World Heritage List included the following facilities in Australia: 1981 Grand Coral Reef; 1981, 1987, 1992 Kakadu National Park; 1981 Willandra area; 1982, 1989 Natural Parks of Western Tasmania; 1982 Group of islands, Lord Howe; 1986, 1994 wet forest reservations in eastern Australia; 1987, 1994 National Park Uluru (Ayers Rock) – Kata Tjuta (Mount Olgas); 1988 National Park in Queensland Wet Tropics; 1991 National Park Shark Bay in Western Australia; Fraser Island 1992; 1994 fossil site of mammals of Riversleigh / Naracoorte; 1997 McDonald Islands; Macquarie Island 1997; 2000 Greater Blue Mountain area; Purnululu National Park 2003; 2004 Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens; 2007 Sydney Opera House.
Australia is an island continent, situated south-east Asia. The waters that are bordered by Australia are: Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, Coral Sea and Tasman Sea (E), Torres Strait (N), and Bass Strait (S), Indian Ocean (SW). Area: 7,713,360 km square. Australia is the world’s smallest continent. The average height is 275 meters of the relief. There are high mountains found inside the vast plains of Australia, and higher in the northeast. National Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($ A) = 100 cents. Major cities and their population: Sydney 3.6 million (1995); Melbourne 3.1 million (1995); Brisbane 1.5 million (1995); Perth 1.2 million (1995); Adelaide 1 million (1995); Canberra 303 846 (1991). Number of inhabitants: 18.1 million (1995).
Population density: 2 inh / km square. Approximately 95% of people are Caucasian. Of these, 60% with Anglo-Celtic roots, but there are Australians with ethnic roots ranging from German to Greek (Melbourne has the highest number of Greek population outside Greece), Lebanese or Chinese. About 20% of Australians were born overseas. Aborigines are about 1.5% of the population, although they were the first inhabitants of Australia, 40,000 years ago. National Language is English. Most Australians speak English, although immigrants continue to speak their national language in the family and circles of friends. Aborigines used to have more than 250 dialects, but only approx. 50 of them were kept.
Religion: Australians are Anglicans, Catholic or other Christian religions. Culture: Australian Government has supported the development of culture. Many cities have either built new art galleries or have expanded existing ones. Sydney Opera House is a good example of architectural talent that Australians have. Economy: Australian economy is situated among the top 15 in the world, while GDP is among the top 20. The country is rich in natural resources like oil, gas, coal, gold, copper, uranium, iron ore and bauxite. Coal and oil account for 20% of earnings through exports, ores and minerals about 25% and 8% gold. Agriculture plays a significant percentage of GDP compared with other developed countries, Australia producing beef, wool (the world’s largest producer), wheat and sugar.
Industry represents one third of GDP. Exports: minerals, meat, wool, aluminum, industrial equipment and transportation. Export Partners: Japan, United States, South Korea, Singapore, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, United Kingdom. Import: industrial and transportation equipment, computers and office equipment, petroleum and petroleum products. Import Partners: Japan, United States, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Germany. Industry: mining, construction, industrial and transport equipment, chemicals, steel, food products. Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP. Australia is the largest exporter of wool and beef, the second exporter of sheep and one of the largest exporters of wheat. Natural resources: bauxite, gold, copper, silver, uranium, nickel, mineral sands, zinc, diamonds, natural gas and oil. Transport and communications: big cities are connected by air, rail or road. In the cities transport is provided by buses, subways and taxis. Communication system is very efficient; there are television and radio stations and national commercial and approx. 500 newspapers, 60 of which occur daily.
Arable land is cultivated 80%. Australia is a leading manufacturer and exporter of agricultural products. Wheat is the main crop. Fruit production is concentrated in wet or irrigated areas. The main fruits cultivated are: berries, grapes, apples, bananas and pineapple. Australia’s highly developed economy is based on the raising of finance, industry and services. Australia is one of the leading producers of wool, wheat, meat, dairy, sugar and fruit in the world. Its mineral wealth is great. Manufacturing is concentrated around large cities. Main products are: cars, airplanes, electrical, chemical products and textiles.
Australia has many unique species of animals and plants: small and large kangaroos, koala bears and bear and duck-billed marsupials. Ornitorinc ant is spiky mammals that lay eggs (monotrene) specific to Australia. The dingo dog is a dog and family member believed to have been introduced to Australia about 30,000 years ago. Birds are also very different: the cock of eucalyptus, cockatoos, lyre bird, parrot, kookaburra and the great flightless emu bird. Australia has a low birth rate and mortality rate. Australia has 38,670 km of railways and 1610 km in the governments own 50% of private rail roads.
40 million kangaroos, 7,000 beaches, 20,000 species of plants, Great Barrier Reef, desert, diamonds, Mount Uluru, and incised rocks by indigenous people hundreds of years ago are a few words about Australia. You must cross half of the world to get to Australia! The story begins back in time of the dinosaurs, when the little continent broke from the world. This early separation was eventually beneficial for fauna and flora has developed independently, making this unique place on Earth. Although it measures only 335 m, rocky mountain Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, is thousands of years old, a place sacred to the Anangu tribe.
Ancestors respected it because of the look and majestic rock is surrounded from all sides, by dessert. About this symbol of Australia many legends circulate. It is said that the one who dares to “steal” a piece of rock will be cursed. A lot of times, people who have heard the words of her ancestors and took a piece of Uluru found themselves haunted by bad luck and decided eventually to return the souvenir. Australia has to offer to lovers of the underwater world. With an area of 345,000 sq km, Great Barrier Reef is the world’s most massive structure built by living organisms. The rich ecosystem hosts over 10,000 unique species: coral, mollusks, fish, echinoderms (starfish), sea turtles, crustaceans.
If you dive here, is not excluded that you meet the humpback whale, the largest animal in the world. By comparison, its weight is equivalent to that of 600 people. The most pleasant cities in the world, in some vision, Sydney or “Emerald City”, as it was known, houses some remarkable architectural creations, including the Palace Opera and Harbor Bridge. Those who are impressed by the tall buildings should not miss the Sydney Tower, a building 305 feet tall. The building was built in 1975 and cost 36 million Australian dollars, meaning U.S. $ 32 million. In inner beauty, you can see the National Maritime Museum, Aquarium, trams and the Money Museum.
Sydney is, indeed, Australia’s largest city, but the title of capital goes to a different city: Canberra, built early last century on the basis of rigorous architectural plans. The town is famous because of buildings that house state institutions (the new Parliament building, the High Court of Australia), but also because of cultural or social structures (National Gallery, National Museum of Australia). There are plenty to see in Perth, a city located in the western side, a leading academic and cultural center. Aboriginal Art Gallery drawings are exhibited in the bark, boomerangs and woven items made by the first inhabitants of Australia, Aborigines. The city has a hi-tech front. Here is organized the Biennial of Electronic Arts, where visual artists from all around the world exhibit their creations more or less fiction.
Basically, there is a no time of year in which you are advised to avoid travel to this destination. However, you should be aware of some issues related to climate. South is very different from the north. Above the Tropic of Cancer wet summers and dry winters, the climate is tropical. The rest of Australia has a temperate climate; only the four seasons are the opposite, given that the country is located in the Southern Hemisphere. In summer, temperatures reach in general, up to 38 degrees Celsius, but heat waves are often blurred, to some extent, the western breezes cool. The coldest part of the country is Tasmania, where the average temperature in summer is 17 degrees Celsius.
For a circuit of 10-12 days in Australia, you have to put to the mattress between 2,000 and 4,000 euros. Some offerings include several days in New Zealand. If you want to go just in Sydney, it will cost you 3,000 euros per person. The most expensive are cruising around the country, whose prices often exceed 5,000 euros per person. A roundtrip ticket is between 900 and 1,600 euros, depending on which company you fly, plus airport taxes.