Travel Guides: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is a country located between Asia and Europe, in the Caucasus.
The word “Azerbaijan” means “Land of Fires” in the old language. The neighbors of Azerbaijan are: Russia to the north, Iran to the south, Georgia, Armenia and Turkey to the west. To the east is the Caspian Sea. On the shores of the Caspian Sea is located the capital Baku. The Azerbaijan people are part of the Turkic family of nations. The vast majority of the population is Muslim. Azerbaijan, a nation where most people are Turkish Muslims, is a secular and unitary republic. Azerbaijan was the first successful attempt to establish a secular democratic republic in the Muslim world. Azerbaijan is one of the founding members of GUAM and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and in September 1993 it joined the CIS.
It is a landlocked country in Trans Caucasus and it is bordering the Caspian Sea. The landscape is varied. Mountains are situated in the north – Greater Caucasus and in the south – Small Caucasus and Talas Mountains in the south-east. Central Plains are drained by tributaries of the river Araks. The culinary region makes the transit between plains and mountains. The climate is Mediterranean in the lower regions and the rest is temperate, with rich rainfall in the Greater Caucasus. Kura is the main watercourse of Trans Caucasus and is partially navigable. The vegetation is vegetation, forests occupying only 14% in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is characterized by a variety of impressive landscape. Over 40% of its territory is occupied by lowlands and plains, half of which being at odds of 400-1500 meters above sea level.
The territories placed at odds of more than 1500 meters are just over 10 percent of the total territory. The most famous plateau is Kura. Mountain slopes are covered by beeches, oaks and firs. Dry subtropical climate is prevalent in the east, and in the center of Azerbaijan, is characterized by a mild winter and long – four to five months – and very hot summers. This environment has been extremely positive for economic development of Azerbaijan since primitive agriculture has given way to more appropriate use of soil. Azerbaijan has very high mountains (up to 4466 m), forests and sea. Azerbaijan attracts many tourists each year. It is situated in the subtropical zone. The total amount of precipitation is 200 mm per year, and in regions located at higher altitudes (mostly in south-east) to 2000 mm.
The average temperature during the year is relatively low. During the summer is around 25 degrees Celsius and in the winter around zero. In mountain regions the temperature is about 10 degrees lower. In Azerbaijan are found almost all types of weather. When a part of the country is too hot elsewhere can be very cold. The climate is favorable for agriculture. There are different varieties of fruit trees growing. The location of Azerbaijan in the climate of 9 of the 11 climate zones of the globe, from alpine meadows to the existence of fertile land, many natural deposits, a rich and diverse world of plants and animals – all these have boosted the economy and cultural life. Azerbaijan is an Islamic republic, former Soviet at the Caspian Sea, a nation rich in oil and which enjoys a crucial strategic importance in geopolitical power in the Caucasus.
Due to its location, Azerbaijan was a gateway to the east and west, and the country was an important stopping point on the Silk Road. Over the centuries, Azerbaijan was incorporated into most regional empires, including Russian, Turkish and Persian. With the stunning North Caucasus Mountains, lush green valleys to the south and large semi-arid stretches in the middle, Azerbaijan is a beautiful country with beautiful scenery, although it remained basically a mystery to modern travel. Main attractions: Watch the flames dance at Yanar Dag (Fire Mountain), in a short distance from Baku, where the underground gas reserves creates a 10 m high wall of fire. Acquire rare copper objects in the Persian mountain town of Lahic. Here are waiting hiking trails, and a charming alpine landscape architecture. Discover the religion of Zoroaster at the Temple of Fire Ateshgan Surakhany. The temple was founded on the party who worshiped fire in the eighteenth century, and today, Zoroaster organizes ritual dances.
Discover Xinaliq mountain village where you will find a unique ethnic group, consisting of 1,000 fathers who keep their language, customs and original traditions. Take a tour of the peninsula Abshron, beyond Baku and explore the fourteenth century fortresses built by Shirvanshahs. The best preserved buildings are at Ramana, Nardaran and Mardakan. Explore Icer Seher, the city of Baku. Narrow streets, old houses and the mosque represent the city crowd before the modern boom in the twentieth century. Go up the stairs in multiple spirals at Virgin Tower, which overlooks the Caspian Sea. Visit the mud volcanoes of Qobustan and see the Stone Age and Bronze rock-glyphs in a day trip from Baku. Discover Sheki, one of the most beautiful cities in Azerbaijan, situated in a mountain landscape that contains many monasteries and caravan-palaces from the eighteenth century.
Daily meals consist of bread, cereals, fruits and vegetables. As a snack between meals, people eat pieces of fruit dipped in yogurt. Russian cuisine reflects influences, with emphasis on bread, potatoes and cabbage. People drink black tea with sugar cubes. Some locals are perfect hosts who love to have guests at the table. Dinner can take three or more hours. Women who visit Azerbaijan should have a modest dress, especially in rural areas and a reserved attitude. Avoid wearing shorts. Although the population is overwhelmingly Muslim, the society of Azerbaijan regards religion as a private matter. Shaking hands is the usual form of greeting. Local time is GMT + 4.
Passports: Simple: it is necessary to obtain visa; Passport Service: no need for a short stay visa; Diplomatic Passport: no need for a short stay visa; Short period of stay (days): 90. Conditions of entry and residence regime: For citizens traveling to Azerbaijan is necessary to obtain the entry visa. Holders of diplomatic passports are exempt and service for a period of three months. It is possible to obtain a visa at Baku airport. The applicant shall submit an application to the consular office of the immigration service, with the invitation and a photo. The fee is $ 40. Length of stay permitted by visas varies from one week to one year. The purposes for which they are granted visas are usually: business, tourism, labor, education, transit, transportation. Additional information on conditions of entry and residence regime can be obtained from the Embassies of Azerbaijan in your. Citizens have the obligation, within three days from the date of entry into the territory of Azerbaijan, to report to local police office to register their stay.
The requirement is considered complied with by registering at a hotel. This applies regardless of the type of trip (with or without visa). The failure to record, exceeding the residence, violation of the stated purpose of the trip or the impossibility of proving the date of entry into the national territory are considered violations of the law on foreigners and fine. For more information about the conditions of entry and residence regime in Azerbaijan, it is recommended consulting official data provided by Azerbaijani authorities. New conditions of stay for those who intend to work in Azerbaijan: for citizens planning to travel to Azerbaijan, particularly in the interest of work, is to be mentioned the introduction of new provisions in the regime of foreign citizens resident in this country.
The most important changes in immigration law relates to the method of registration of foreign nationals operating in Azerbaijan. It is necessary to obtain temporary residence permit in this country. Thus, those concerned should ensure that they traveled all the steps provided by law. Initially, Azerbaijani employer who wishes to import labor from abroad must obtain the approval of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Azerbaijan. Each foreign worker must obtain from the Department of State for Immigration temporary residence permit that is valid for one year – the license may be extended up to four times. After obtaining the permit, foreigners must report to the Ministry of Interior to register as a resident. Temporary residence permit is required for those married to citizens of Azerbaijan or cohabiting, those who have investments in Azerbaijan’s economy or students.
Failure to comply with new legal provisions can be punished with penalties ranging up to prison. It is to be reminded that traveling abroad is necessary to inform the law of the country of destination before departure. Ignorance does not forbid to be held accountable by the State authorities. Emergency Calls: 102 – police, 103 – ambulance, 101 – firefighters. Customs Regulations: At the entry into Azerbaijan simple passport holders must complete a customs declaration typed, indicating the amount in foreign currency, gold, silver, weapons, which are stamped at passing through customs. This statement must be kept and presented to Customs when leaving the country, will complement one another when a customs declaration. The output from Azerbaijan by countries that are part of the Customs Union (CIS) can remove any amount in cash without reporting and presentation of certificates.
Removing currency in other countries – up to 5000 USD – without a declaration, from 5000 to U.S. $ 10,000 – must be declared in writing, and over 10.000 USD necessary documents proving the purchase, out of mind, the earlier introduction in Azerbaijan. It allows transit without payment of customs duties, by individuals, goods which have manufacturing or commercial purpose, worth up to US $ 1,000 and 50 kg per person, if the value of goods is up to 5000 dollars and total weight of up to 250 kg applies a simplified form for declaring taxes and duties related to and exceeding the above limits – according to general rules.
Area: 86,000 sq km. Population: 7,400,900 inhabitants. Population density: 81 inhabitants per sq km. The capital and largest city: Baku, 1,757,000 inhabitants. Past History: It achieved independence in 1918, and became a republic of the USSR in 1920. It became independent again in 1991 and now is partially attached to the CIS and is a member of the UN. Since then there is a civil war that goes for the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Region. Azerbaijan includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, a region separated from Azerbaijan by the Armenian territory. Constant conflict with Armenia is a constant in modern history. The northeast includes the Caucasus Mountains, with smaller mountains in the south. Agriculture: Although arable land accounts for more than 10% of the total, cotton, tobacco, grapes, cereals, rice, vegetables, and silk are important products. Along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea there are tea and citrus plantations.
Oil and gas brings more wealth the country. The main oil fields are to the west, north and south of Baku. There were built near refineries and a pipeline linking Baku to Batumi on the Black Sea. Other natural deposits: iron, copper, lead, zinc and aluminum. There have developed many industries, especially steel and aluminum processing in Sumgait. Lenkoran and Stepankert in the south are industrial centers of chemicals, textiles and leather. During the communist period was given to the industry of petroleum and natural gas, and industrial machinery and equipment, textile and food industry. In the twentieth century, Azerbaijan deposits supplied the bulk of the oil necessary to the Russian Empire, respectively the former USSR. Currently Azerbaijan is an important supplier of oil of Western countries, which is related to the BTC pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan). It bypasses Russia and enables it to deliver crude oil from there the rest of Turkey and the West.
Electricity is produced mainly from power plants. While the main industrial center of Baku is the capital of the republic, Sumgait is the largest supplier of steel products. Azerbaijan’s industry produces fertilizers, fuel, herbicides, industrial oils, synthetic rubbers and plastics. Light industry produces cotton and woolen goods, footwear and other consumer products. Although the cultivated area does not exceed one fifth of Azerbaijani territory, the provided products are significant. Azerbaijan is a leader in the production of cotton, tobacco, grapes and tea at the regional level. Since there are few navigable rivers, Azerbaijan has developed primarily rail and automobile. Both plains and sloping hills are generally well watered and suitable for crops, the most important in antiquity as cereals and vines. Fertile meadows are ideal for grazing. Other resources are mountain forests, apparently once very rich in trees which testifies the built a wooden house.
Stone also was used in squares cut into blocks. Agriculture, natural resources and trade that in time became extremely active, Azerbaijan decisively influenced the civilization. Azerbaijan has rich natural resources of oil, natural gas, gold, aluminum, and others. Among the favorite seafood and caviar can enumerate all the different varieties of fish, cooked traditional recipes. Coin: Azerbaijani Manat is the official currency unit of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani Manat = 100 qəpik). Azerbaijani Manat is a borrowed word from Russian: монета, pronounced: [man'eta], which means “coin”, “pennies”. In turn, монета Russian word was borrowed from Latin: Monet currency. “Manat” was in the Soviet era, the name of the Soviet ruble in Azerbaijani and Turkmen languages. Graphic current coins and banknotes circulating in Azerbaijan were created by Austrian Robert Kalina, one of the euro designers.
Population (January 2008): 8,629,900 (Government of Azerbaijan). Population growth rate (2007): 1.1% (Government of Azerbaijan). Net migration rate (2006): -4.38 migrant (s) / 1,000 people. Ethnic groups (1999 census): Azerbaijan 90.6%, 2.2% Dagestan, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9%. The separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians. Religion: Muslim 93.4% (mostly Shi’ite), 2.5% Russian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox Church 2.3%, 1.8% other. Languages: Azerbaijan 89%, Russian 3%, 2%, Armenian, and other 6%. Education: Literacy – 97%.
Health: Infant mortality rate: 83.41/1000 live births (2000). Life expectancy (2007): 65.96 years. Place of work force (3 million). Agriculture and forestry: 42.3%, industry: 6.9%, Construction: 4.2%, other: 46.6%. The Azerbaijan spoken language is very close to Anatolian Turkish language and the alphabet is Latin, with some appropriate vocabulary words.
Baku, also known as Baky or Baki is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan. It is located on the southern peninsula of Abseron. Modern Baku consists of three parts: the Old Town, New Town and the city built by the Soviet Union. Population census of 1 January 2003 was 2,074,300 inhabitants. Approximately 3 million people live in the metropolitan area (due to the large number of refugees). The structure of the oil-rich city is a rectangular, only in the old town inside the old fort, the streets are winding and narrow. The new town in south was built after massive oil exploitation beginning a century ago and has a beaux-arts interesting architecture. After the recovery of independence in 1991, political, economic and law of the Republic of Azerbaijan led to the dynamic development of the country.
The state has been stimulated by the development of many economic sectors, which previously had not received necessary attention, so leading to the country’s economic growth potential. One of these sectors is tourism. Tourism is an important sector of the economy and has a tendency to continue to increase internationally. The tourism industry embraces a wide range of public and private companies that bring economic profit and social changes that bring new jobs for different categories of workers, especially women. World tourism is valued traditionally by the number of foreign tourists and revenues which are brought by this sector. The evolution of these indicators shows a continuing trend of growth in the global tourism industry. Azerbaijan has rich resources for developing this sector. First of all the country has a very opportune geographical position. Azerbaijan is located in combining the two continents, the two civilizations of the world – Europe and Asia transport corridor in the heart of the Caucasus, concentrating the entire infrastructure – air and maritime transport, railways and bus driver, which connects Europe countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Occupying an area not too big to be compared, Azerbaijan has unique natural and climatic features. Of the 11 climate zones 9 are on the territory of Azerbaijan: from the subtropical to alpine high-altitude plains. More than half of the country is occupied by the Talas Mountains, and also by the Mountains of the Small and Great Caucasus. In these mountains there are many sources of rivers that fall, usually in the Caspian Sea. Most notable among them are the Kura, Araks, Samur, Ganyh (Alazan). In Azerbaijan there are more than 100 types of volcanic lakes formed by glaciers and also those lakes which are formed by the activity of the Caspian Sea. The pearl of the lakes is Lake Gey-Geli in Azerbaijan, which lies at an altitude of 1576 m in Small Caucasus Mountains. This lake was formed after an earthquake that took place in 1139. Flora and fauna is very diverse and rich. 4,500 types of plants and flowers increase recorded in Azerbaijan, formed more than 64% of Caucasian flora component.
Fauna of the Republic is characterized by a significant diversity and includes 15,000 types of insects, more than 1,100 types of arachnids, more than 600 vertebrates, 97 of mammals. Of 348 types of birds have significant economic and domestic bird fins, which are an important target for the hunters. In Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea are about 120 live fish types and subtypes. A special value for the Caspian Sea have the 7 types and subtypes of the sturgeon family, the numbers of fish caught in the Caspian Sea is 90% of the global catch. In Azerbaijan there are 15 historical and natural reserves, 20 natural reserves and hunting, and seven rest areas along the Caspian Sea. After the number of the natural reserves Azerbaijan ranks 1st. A special significance for tourism development in Azerbaijan will be the national parks, created the Republic of Azerbaijan in the reserves that already exist.
Natural resources of the country allow their creation, because in many countries such parks already exist and function as tourist objectives, bringing considerable income to the state. There have been created five National Parks: Ag-Gelyi (17,924), Ordubad (12,131), Shirvan (54,373), Gyrgan (21,435), Alty Agadjy (11,035). Azerbaijan is a country with rich history and ancient culture. On the territory of today, it was a crossroads of the ancient trade routes of Asia and Europe have left 6308 historical, archaeological and cultural monuments of significance and 65 worldwide, bringing the admiration till today. Architectural monuments of Azerbaijan in the VII-XVIII centuries went gold reserve gold heritage and architecture. For example: the city “Icheri Sheher” (XII century), where not too big an area of 22 hectares, restricted by a high wall, where are the 44 ancient monuments.
Among these is the complex of the Shirvanshah Palace (XV century), the minaret Synykala (XI century), Tower Virgo, Djuma-minaret mosque (XV century). In Azerbaijan is found only one museum in the world of carpets of Azerbaijan, which are exposed to multiple copies, which characterize the diversity of artistic heritage of the people of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan carpets, the pile and the artificial are masterpieces, which are differentiated by the technical and artistic qualities of the original. In all, 158 referred to the museums in the country works. Cultural-historical heritage and nature based tourism products in Azerbaijan which the country stands on the international tourism market. Moreover, Azerbaijan is known because of its cuisine. A variety of fruits, vegetables, aromatic herbs and spices in different compositions that are often used by Azerbaijan Chefs that you will not find in any other cuisine in the world.
This is why more and more gourmets express interest for the country. In the country you will find everything you need when a person goes on a journey – many historical and architectural monuments, ancient culture, very brilliant folk art, customs and secular traditions, a rich and diverse nature, with true Eastern hospitality. In recent years the development of tourism in the country, significant changes have occurred. And you can not deny these things. Without exaggeration different oil boom, Baku city location at the crossroads of Euro-Asian transport corridors has increased the business people who arrive in the country. Of course, it increased the demand for quality services. Therefore, there were opened new hotels, restaurants, entertainment centers. In the capital city you will find these modern hotels: Hyatt Regency Baku with 160 rooms, Grand Hotel Europe – Baku, with 159 rooms, Radisson SAS Plaza Hotel – Baku 40 rooms, Parl Hyatt Hotel with 160 rooms, Meridian with 15 rooms, The Crescent Beach Hotel with 262 rooms, Dolphin with 25 rooms, Diplomat with 24 rooms and others, as well as hotels and tourist attractions located in different regions of the country.
In recent years there have been put into operation more than 100 tourist attractions. The State supports for this area and consists in adopting a series of documents on creation of favorable conditions to attract investors in this sector of national and international importance, to establish discounts for paying taxes, tourist visa facilitation, improvement of legal base. Azerbaijan Presidential Decree no. 1029 of 28 August 2002 was adopted the National Program for the Development of Tourism in Azerbaijan for 2002-2005 and plan events for its achievement. These events have already been made. Therefore, there have increased the number of foreign visitors in Azerbaijan. In 2002 the number of tourists was 428,397, in the year 2003 up to 629,753, in the year 2004 up to 785,910 and in 2005 up to 865,255 people.
They have introduced new forms of statistical calculation for sightseeing and tourist companies. This information is calculated according to international standards, the International Tourism Organization recommendations and global experience in developing tourism industry. Azerbaijan began to integrate into European society and global tourism, thanks to participation in international tourist exhibitions at fairs, scholarships. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan Republic, since 2002, participates annually in the International Tourism Exhibition in Moscow, and several regional exhibitions in Russia, in cities such Mahaci-Kala, Novosibirsk. The Ministry also proposes other forms of tourism such as cultural tourism knowledge, sports, tourism highly specialized, thematic, ethnographic and religious, throughout the territory of Azerbaijan or, for example, exotic hunting in the altitude of the Great Caucasus, resting on the shore of the Caspian Sea or the most important form of tourism – travel by coach along the Silk Road route Baku Azerbaijan – Shemaha – Shek – Belokan – Georgia.
It is continued the project signed on February 6, 2004 on the creation of tourist information centers, funded by UNDP and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. 7 regions have been established which will operate in information centers. Currently the state pays special attention to tourism development in Azerbaijan. In the National Program to accelerate socio-economic development of the region of Azerbaijan in 2004-2008 was adopted special attention given to infrastructure development in tourism regions. The above certainly contributes to the development of tourism industry in Azerbaijan, the country’s tourism potential growth, making tourism a profitable sector of the economy. Currently, state and local structures, media and society have formed a much clearer view about the meaning importance of tourism on framing it in priority sectors of national economy.
Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan granted a special significance extending cooperation in tourism between the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia in recent years; the country was visited by participants of a conference International Highway of the Volga by the state delegations in Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, Stavropol Region and other regions in their structure between representatives of tourism. The analysis stage is intergovernmental agreements and cooperation in tourism. In the year of Azerbaijan in Russia, representatives of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan Republic were held presentations of the country’s tourism potential in the Russian regions. Presentations were held in Stavropol region, in Tambov, and there will be presentations in Ivanovo, Nijnyi Novgorod, Samara and Yekaterinburg and will carry out national exhibition kitchen preparations.
Azerbaijan was named Northern Caucasus Albania in ancient times. In this area there have been numerous conflicts between Arabs, Cossacks and Turks. After the eleventh century, the territory came under Ottoman domination, became a center of Shiite Muslim religion and Islamic culture. The territory of Soviet Azerbaijan was “purchased” by Russia from the Persians, by the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkamanchai Treaty of 1828. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Azerbaijan declared its independence from Russia in May 1918. The Republic was conquered by the Red Army in 1920 and annexed to Trans Caucasian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1922. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Azerbaijan declared its independence. Since 1988, Azerbaijan and Armenia fight for Nagorno-Karabakh enclave.
Most enclaves inhabited by Armenian Christians want to secede from the Muslim population and join Armenia. War was erupted in 1988 when Armenia tried to “take” Nagorno-Karabakh. When was reached a peace agreement in 1994, the war already made 30,000 victims. Nagorno-Karabakh’s final status is not established yet. The country hopes to escape the economic difficulties in foreign investment in Azerbaijan’s oil resources, which are estimated to be worth millions of dollars. Since 1994 they have signed several contracts with international oil companies and foreign investments have increased. Azerbaijan is one of the oldest states of civilization, a country with an ancient and rich history, whose territory over centuries accumulated a rich legacy to world culture treasure. Azîh cave discovery – one of the first places where the man lived and the objects of the Stone Age, shows that Azerbaijan has entered the area where lived the anthropoids. The formation process of the tribes in this region III lasted million BC to first century.
The first political parties emerged in the territory of Azerbaijan in the ninth century BC. State Manna, who had a high level of economic and cultural development, whose inhabitants believed in natural phenomena, the Sun and the Moon. At the beginning of VI century BC Manna was conquered by the Media and became the official religion of Zoroastrianism, whose spread was linked to numerous oil and gas fields, natural sources of fire. An important role in the history of ancient Azerbaijan states played Atropaten and Caucasian Albania. Atropaten designation, derived from the name of its leader, Atropa, became the latest in Azerbaijan.
It was in Atropatena that began the process of forming the Azerbaijan nation. In III-V centuries on the territory of Azerbaijan was spread Christianity. With the advent of Christian churches in Trans Caucasus, secular and spiritual life has acquired a new momentum of development. At the beginning of the V century was composed the alphabet of Albania, which has boosted development of education. Many unique cultural monuments of literature and architecture have been preserved until today. At the beginning of VIII century Azerbaijan was conquered by the Arabs and became a part of the Arab Caliphate as Vilaiat Arran. In this period of Azerbaijan’s main religion is Islam, creating new traditions and cultures. Azeris, like other nations that have adopted Islam, Muslims were called and contributed to the development of Muslim culture.
At that time, Azerbaijan had rich treasure of world culture, giving the world many scholars, poets and illustrious architects. In different periods of the Middle Ages, the territory of Azerbaijan, have been shown the Qaraqoyunlu state formations, and the State Agqoyunlu Safevizs. Trade routes between Europe and Asia made that Azerbaijan, which lies at the crossing, that they caught the interest of other states. However, in the XVIII century on the territory of Azerbaijan emerged independent states – khanates. But disputes between Russia, Turkey and Iran, which have increased in the eighteenth century, Azerbaijan has turned into an arena of war. Under the Treaty of Turkmanciai (1928) Russia and Iran have historically divided between them Azerbaijan: Russia returned north and the south of Iran. Now are living in Iran around 25-30 million Azerbaijanis.
After the First World War in 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was founded, becoming the first country among the Muslim countries. It existed there until 1920 when it was occupied by the Soviet army. Azerbaijan regained its independence in 1991. At present, Azerbaijan has a military conflict with Armenia, which occupied 20% of the territory of Karabakh and Azerbaijan which resulted in nearly 800,000 people that were forced to flee, living far and homeless. UNESCO World Heritage List included the following facilities in Azerbaijan: 2000, the fortified city of Baku with the Palace of Sirvansah and the Tower of the Virgin; 2007, cultural landscape of the cave paintings at Qobustan.
After the Russian revolution in February 1917, the national movement in Azerbaijan, a country on the outskirts of the Russian Empire, won a ninth feature, as the discussions ended addressing theoretical and cultural-media pages. The shadow was following the launching and implementation of political goals and demands. Under the new conditions, public opinion was for the party “Müsavat” (“Equality”), founded in 1911, which was based from the outset to the right of self-determination of nations. In late October 1917, “Müsavat”, headed by M. Emin Rasulzade (1884-1955), held its first Congress, defining tactics and strategy of the party and the new program, which contained the following points: reforming of policy of the Russian Empire in a democratic federative republic composed of national-territorial autonomy; the freedom of expression, belief, news of the meeting, demonstration and assertion state guaranteed by the Constitution; equality to all citizens before the law without distinction of religion, nationality, gender, political views, winding passport system and asserting the right of human displacement both within the state and abroad without special permits.
Others: the establishment of 8 hours of daily work for all employees and workers; dividing without interest and without conditions to all state and private lands among the peasants; the subjection only to the law and citizen exemption from punishment without the latest decision of the organs of justice; education is top general, free, public and forced. During the meeting the information about the fall of the government of A. Kerensky and the Bolshevik coup in Petrograd is heard. On 2 November 1917, the head of the Armenian Bolsheviks S. Saumian, succeed to declare the Baku Soviet, the supreme power in the city, but the new government area of influence is limited to the outskirts of the capital of Azerbaijan. Rest of South Caucasus was led by the Trans Caucasian Commissariat, established on 11 November in Tiflis (now Tbilisi), which recognized the legitimacy of A. Kerensky.
The Trans Caucasian Government (Prime Minister E. Gheghecikori) and three Azerbaijanis were present: Fatali han Xoyski, M. Yusif Cafarov, Xalil Xasmammadov. Later, on 23 February 1918, was opened the legislative body, called after the model of the Polish, Sejm. Trans Caucasian Sejm was generally composed of deputies elected from regional countries to the Russian Duma, the fraction of Azerbaijan consists of 44 members. Azerbaijan is in a unique and dangerous situation, because in all the Caucasus only in Baku, because of the cosmopolitan and mixed ethnic composition formed after the discovery of oil here, the Bolsheviks, composed of elements of Azerbaijani were able to seize power. This separated the country into two fronts: newcomers and natives of remaining in Baku. After leaving Russia in the First World War, because blockade of Baku and Tiflis railway, here gathered thousands of Russian and Armenian soldiers, who returned from Iran and western fronts, or sent to the Caucasian front.
On those days Azeri did not have troops because all Muslim citizens of the Russian Empire were exempted from military service in return for a special tax. For locals who did not support the elimination of Soviet power in Baku Soviet and the party “Daşnakţutiun” conducted a bloody massacre of the Azeri population of the city resulted in 12,000 deaths (March 31, 1918). Later, the “father of independence” of Azerbaijan, M.E. Rasulzade, noted that the events in March are blamed on Müsavat and is absolutely no argument, because in order to declare war is required to have at least some physical force, which Müsavat did not. Others accuse Müsavat to launch the idea of autonomy of Azerbaijan, thus causing the events of March. Perhaps if they were obeying the head tilted in the face of enemies of their freedom, none of those events would have happened. Under the slogan of establishing the Soviet power, the Red Army troops whose core was constituted by Daşnakţutiun massacre in other cities like Quba, Şamaxî, Lankaran, Salyan, Kürdamir, east of the country. Later, the Sejm realized the unusual situation and on 22 April 1918, was transformed into independent a Trans Caucasian Federal Republic, and over four days to form the new government led by Georgian A. Ţhenkeli.
In the composition of that government entered five Azerbaijanis ministers: FH Xoyski (justice), X. Malik-Aslanov (transport), N. Yusifbayli (Education), MH Hacînski (trade and industry), I. Heydarov (state control). But the declaration of independence has not changed any domestic situation, foreign or state. Each of the three titular nations (Georgian, Azeri and Armenian) defended national interests rather than those common in Caucasian, and the country having a single authoritative power, suffered from anarchy. Ethnic hostility in the province peaked in Erivan (Yerevan currently) where the ethnic cleansing of Azerbaijanis achieve by Armenian troops in order to obtain a favorable situation for the future independence of Armenia and ethnic majority in this country. Only this year, 80 000 Azerbaijanis have become refugees in the Erivan province. No relations between Georgians and Armenians in Tiflis province south were good, which led to the end of the Armenian-Georgian war.
On 26 May 1918, the Trans Caucasian Federation fell by the declaration of independence of Georgia. Over two days Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence. Azeri deputies were driving the temporary body – National Council (Milli Sura), which was elected President Rasulzade Mammad Emin. It was signed on June 4, 1918 between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Azerbaijan Democratic the peace and friendship treaty, which ensure the necessary support to the new state. And on June 16 led by the Azerbaijani government lawyer Xoyski Fatal Han (1875-1920) moved from Tiflis to Ganca, the second largest city in the country, because Baku was occupied. It is interesting that Armenia does not currently have an own capital and as a gesture of courtesy, gave the National Council on 29 May 1918, Armenia, Erivan city, where Azeris were the majority.
On May 30 was announced on the proclamation in Istanbul, Berlin, Paris, London, Bucharest, Rome, Washington, Moscow, Tokyo and others. On June 27 newly born State named Azeri language as state language and set a temporary flag, which was defined on September 9 as the tricolor blue, red, green, star and crescent eight-angular. The national flag symbolizes the three colors of the Turkish national culture, modern European democracy and Islamic civilization. But the key issue remained the question of the viability of the republic. On 12 June 1918, under the orders of S. Şaumian, Baku Soviet military troops began an attack on Ganca, leading Azeri state on the verge of destruction. Government urged not to have a regular army military aid in Istanbul, according to paragraph 4 of the Treaty of 4 June. Azerbaijan joined the Turkish Army met the provisional capital of Soviet troops near the battle that lasted several days and the area near Göyçay (June 27-July 1, 1918), crushed the Red Army, led the Bolshevik betrayal by Daşnakţutiun and a shot of power in Baku (August 1, 1918). The Centrocaspi dictatorship, composed of Russian officers and supporters of White Guard, called on British troops in the city led by General Densterwill and the 26 Bolshevik commissars, who were trying to reach with a ship at Red Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea have been arrested and with Şaumian were shot in the desert sands of the current Agdjakum, Turkmenistan.11