Travel Guides: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia is a predominantly mountainous country, given by the Ore Mountains and the Dinaric Alps, and rich karst phenomena, including valleys with gorges, cut by the rivers Nevertva, Vrbas, Drina.
The forests, mainly deciduous, comprise 50% of the country, and the rich wildlife, is specific to Central Europe and the Mediterranean. The war with Serbia (1992-1995) marked Bosnia strongly on all levels, but the country remains a tourist attraction because of the spas and mountain landscape. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a heart-shaped area in the middle of South-east Europe. Here met the eastern and western civilizations sometimes came into conflict, but most times they have enriched and supported the long and fascinating history. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a long name for a country that contains little more than 50.000 sq km. Bosnia covers the north and center of the country, the name probably came from the word “Bosana” of Indo-European origin, which means water. The south land of the old hum – was renamed Herzegovina after it was conquered by the Ottoman invaders.
Speaking about Bosnia and Hertegovina is hard not to remember the wars of Yugoslavia, which have ravaged much of the Balkan territories in the 1990s. The losses consisted of thousands of lives, villages and towns with buildings in ruins. Yet the country remains beautiful, and its rivers have not lost their shine. Rich culture and history stand in the beautiful mosques, lecture halls and Catholic shrines. The terrain varies from mountains to forests and rolling hills. Perhaps most appealing is the rebuilt bridge in Mostar, which symbolizes a new beginning. Bosnia and Herzegovina prides itself with the hospitality with which the locals welcome the visitors, making them feel like part of the family.
Main attractions: The city of Mostar was one of the main tourist destinations, but now is in a rebuilding process, after most of the monuments were destroyed by war (including the mosques in XVI and XVII centuries and the famous Turkish bridge). The bridge was recently rebuilt, and with the few medieval buildings and cobbled streets, is a good reason to visit the city of Mostar. Visit the majority of Muslim settlements in Europe, located in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fethija Mosque in Bihac is one of the few ancient mosques that were not destroyed by war. To see the sea head to the small portion of the country’s coast. On the coast, fishing is not restricted. But, for rivers and lakes, you need a special permit, the rules being different from one region to another.
Explore Ostrozac castle, partly in ruins, that offers beautiful gardens and lovely views over the river valley of Una. Look at one of the most important shrines of Christianity – the south-east Medjugorje, a place where many claim that the Virgin Mary has shown to them. Look at the traces of the 500 years of leadership in the Turkish capital, Sarajevo. Turkish Quarter and the historic center have been largely rebuilt and the town starts to come alive. Colorful bazaars are testament to the Ottoman heritage and energy today. Visit the colorful mosque near the Hundek, which claims to hold the thread of Muhammad’s beard. Visit Banja Luka, the capital city of Republic of Srpska and admire the fort from the sixteenth century and the amphitheater. Listen to the sad and beautiful rhythms of Bosnian folk songs, sevdah. Indulge yourself in mountain resorts such as Bjelasnica, Igman and Jahorina. Dubica, Laktasi, Srebrenica, Visegrad and Telic have mineral springs and medical facilities.
Assist the Sarajevo Winter Festival (which usually takes place in February, March), an arts festival that takes place since the 90s. The festival symbolizes the celebration of creativity and freedom through cultural diversity. Take a trip through the spectacular alpine landscape of Bosnia, rich with rivers, waterfalls and canyons. In some areas you can go around Bihac with raft and kayak, especially Una River that is famous for clear blue waters. Sarajevo Film Festival is the most popular festival in the capital and takes place in August. They play films from most neighboring countries, and the standards aare very high. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country in south-east Europe, home to three constituent ethnic groups: Bosnians, Serbs and Croats. Bosnia and Herzegovina citizens regardless of ethnicity are called Bosnians. It borders Croatia to the west, Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the south and southeast, and has exit to the Adriatic Sea in the form of a strip of land about 20 km around the town of Neum.
Sarajevo is the capital city, a city that was founded in 1263 under the name Bosnovar. The city is located in the Valley of Sarajevo, on the banks of the river Miljacka and is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps. Due to the large number of mosques, narrow streets, squares and Turkish bazaar, the city was considered the most Eastern European city, which is also called the European Jerusalem. The Catholic Cathedral, Muslim Mosque and Judaic Synagogue, representative buildings for the city are only 100 m apart. The city center is divided into two areas: the New Town, which is the European part and the Old Town. In the New town you will meet wide boulevards everywhere, great cafes and shops and in the Old Town with little houses and narrow streets create a true Asian atmosphere. The Old Town tourist attractions are: Market Bascarsija from the XVI century built on the model of oriental markets; here you will find souvenir shops, public fountains, a bazaar and numerous cafes; Commercial Market Gazi Husrev-bei and Bezistan Brusa, one of the largest stations from the old Silk Road.
City landscape is dominated by Muslim type colored buildings, many of which are considered true works of art of Turkish architecture. These include the Tsar Mosque from the XVI century, Mosque Begovic from the XV century, which is the largest in the country, Ali Pasha Mosque, Kursumli Madres, which houses a library which has over 50,000 manuscripts and books and Turkish fortress with 12 towers, situated on a rocky hill. Other attractions of the city include: Museum of Contemporary Art, National Theatre, Cultural Center, Studio Cinema, Academy of Sciences and Arts and Park Vrelo Bosne. Tuzla is an important scientific, economic, cultural and tourist center located in north-eastern Bosnia, being the third largest city in the country. It offers very beautiful views, situated at the foot of Majevica Mountains.
There were discovered more archaeological evidences that prove that there were settlements in Tuzla since the remote past and that is one of the oldest settlements in the country. The main attractions of the city are: the old town square, the Pannonian Lake, which flows into the salt springs and art galleries. Salt Market is dedicated to the history of salt and its exploitation, since neolithic Tuzla basing on salt springs. Medugorje is an area situated between the mountains at an altitude of 2,000 m, with a mild Mediterranean climate. It has become very popular since 1981 when six young people claimed to have had visions of the Virgin Mary and became an important place of pilgrimage which attracts thousands of people. The informal capital of Herzegovina is the city of Mostar. The greatest symbol of this is the Stari Most Bridge built in 1566 by the order of Sultan Suleiman in 2004 and was rebuilt as a symbol of peace and unity.
The city center is located around the bridge that crosses the Neretva River, on its streets being many cafes, terraces and old buildings. The main attractions of the city are: the old Turkish bazaar built since the eighteenth century, places of worship and Koski Mehmed mosque and the Franciscan Church. Among the many buildings of Ottoman or Austro-Hungarian era that have survived in good condition are the high minarets and church towers. Kravice waterfall, called Little Niagara of 120 m wide and hot springs are some of the attractions of the area. Jablanica is situated on a plateau below the peaks Cvrsnica and Prenj Mountains at an altitude of 202 m. A part of the city is located in the mountains, another on the river Neretva and the third part on the west bank of the river Jablanicko. Here can be seen: War Museum, located near the bridge destroyed in the Second World War that houses an important collection of photographs that illustrate that time, War Memorial located at the top of Mount Prenj.
National Park hosts one of the oldest forests in the European continent, and Mount Magli in the Paleozoic era, Bosnia’s highest peak with an altitude of 2,200 m. This south European land characterizes above all the culture crestiniste union influence, as Western Catholics, as eastern Islams and Jews. All took part in the development of local architecture, sculpture, music and writing. There were traces after each historical era. The oldest monuments are the bodanical cave drawings, near Stolte, or archeological findings in Butmir datující of 2 000 years BC. In some places there are remains of Illyrian ruins. The bridge and the baths of Ilidja in Sarajevo will bring back the Roman era. Slovan arrival in Bosnia and Herzegovina is about cultural fall, after several centuries, this medieval rise broke a situation that fell significantly. Characteristics of that period belong to the Stećcs, single grave stones.
Defense and medieval religious buildings are few, some you can see in Jaita or Bihac. The most important period of this land remained the Osman rule. Rise of trade has sustained a tradition marked by the local Muslim-Turkish culture. In this period were created Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, was built the bridge in Visegrad, in Jepa and Mostar. New roads were built, commercial, and also the network that binds inns and mosques. In the cities were built schools called “medres” and “mecteb” and also libraries. The fall of culture reached the weakening of Turkey power in the Balkans, the power was on the Austro-Hungarian. Most cities have won the European character; the cathedral was built in Sarajevo, Saborna crkva, City Hall, Earth Museum, National Theater and other important buildings. The first half of the 20th century has left in Bosnia and Herzegovina only remnants of two world wars, many lost lives of local inhabitants and forced division of the territory from foreign lands.
Since 1950 optimistic events are happening, in 1984 Bosnia and Herzegovina was an organizer of the Olympic Games. The end of the war in 1995 led the renovation of historical and cultural objects. Total rehabilitation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is intended to strengthen the tourists coming. Form of government: federal republic. Area: 51,129 km². Official languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. Capital: Sarajevo. Currency: Convertible mark. Population: 4,025,476 people. Geographical Location: It is a country in Southeastern Europe with a population of about four million people. The interior is predominantly a mountainous country with various rivers, most non-navigable. The capital is Sarajevo, which is also the largest city.
Administrative Divisions: In accordance with the provisions of the Dayton Peace Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two territorial entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing 51% of the territory and the Republic Srpska, representing 49% of the territory. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into ten cantons. There are also cities with administrative status: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla and Banja Luka. Brčko federal district was created by a decision of the arbitration and is a territory under central government authority. It has a coastline as a small strip of land about 20 km from the Adriatic Sea, around the town of Neum. The climate is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. In the mountains at the highest altitudes, summers are short and cool and the winters are long and cold. Winter in the coastal climate is moderate. The landscape is characterized by the Dinaric Alps, located in the East, which slowly descends toward the west. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina increased from year to year. The number of tourists has grown every year with about 24% from 1995 to 2000. Yugoslavia’s wars have ravaged much of the Balkan territories in the 1990s.
Bosnian cuisine has been influenced by the Turkish, and Eastern European cuisine. It prefers roasted meat-based dishes and pastries. There are custom usual sweet and salty. Popular desserts are apple pie and baklava called “tufahije”. Popular drinks are kefir, a thin yogurt, Turkish coffee and a kind of tea called “salep”. They consume home made alcohol, but alcohol consumption decreased or was banned due to the influence of Islamism. Form of government: Democratic Republic – bicameral Parliament that consists of the Chamber of Deputies with 42 seats (28 seats for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Srpska Republic with 14 seats) elected by popular vote for a period of 4 years and the Popular Assembly with 15 seats (five seats Bosnian, five seats Croatian and five seats Serb) chosen by the Chamber of Deputies of the Croatian-Bosnian Federation and Republic Srpska, National Assembly for a period of four years.
Mountains: The highest peak: Maglic 2386 m. Sea: The Adriatic Sea gives Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 km of coastline. The best time to visit Bosnia and Herzegovina is spring or summer. For tourists interested in skiing the best period is between December and February. Events: National Day on November 25. Population density: 89 people / km ². Population Distribution: Urban 45% / 55% Rural (2004). Population living below the standard: 25% (2004). Birth rate: 8.8 to 1000 inhabitants. Death rate: 8.42 to 1000 inhabitants. Average Age: 38.9 years. Education Rates: 96.7% – People who know how to read and write (more than 15 years). Unemployment rate: 45.5% (2004). Ethnic Groups: Bosnians 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croatia 14.3% Others 0.6% (2000). Emigrants: 9.65 persons per 1,000 inhabitants. Language: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian.
Religion: Muslim 40%, 31% Orthodox, Roman Catholic 15% and other 14%. Transport: train, plane, car. Shipping routes: Sara River, only limited import / export. Highways / Roads: 21.846 km, Railways 608 km, Airports 28, Ports 5. Gross Domestic Product: $ 25.32 billion (total) (2006). Minimum Wage: 100 convertible marks in the Republic Srpska and 308 in the Federation of Bosnian – Herzegovina. Average salary: 640 convertible marks in the Bosnia – Herzegovina Federation. Industries: Steel, coal, iron ores, lead, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, electronics, oil refining. Agriculture Products: wheat, corn, fruit, vegetables. Personalities: Ivana Milicevic (1974 – present) – Born in Sarajevo, migrated to America at age nine where she became an actress. She appeared in the series: Charmed, Seinfeld, The Nanny, Felicity; Aleksandar Nikolić (1924-2000) – basketball player and coach who had a great significance for the development of the sport that has been called the “father of basketball”; Arslanagić Abbas – known handball player and coach, who won Olympic bronze medal as coach in 1988 and Olympic gold medal as a player in 1972.
Passport: Simple: no need for a short stay visa. Passport Service: no need for a short stay visa. Diplomatic Passport: no need for a short stay visa. Short period of stay (days): 90/30/30. Conditions of entry and residence regime: Citizens do not need visa to enter Bosnia and Herzegovina, for journeys that do not exceed 90 days within six months from the date of first entry. To check the special conditions of entry under national law (regarding the minimum amounts, medical insurance scheme) it is recommended consulting official data provided by Bosnian authorities. Emergency Calls: 122 police, 123 firefighters, ambulance 124. Customs Regulations: Customs Regulation provides that in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be introduced by individuals without paying customs duties, the following quantities of products: 400 cigarettes, 2 liters of alcoholic beverages, 100 grams of perfumes.
In Muslim families is celebrated the end of Ramadan with a big meal in the family, which contains Turkish sweets. Both Catholics and Orthodox Christians celebrate Easter with dyed eggs and bread. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country characterized by ethnic and religious diversity and indicated that visitors respect the customs and traditions of various ethnic and religious groups. The main ethnic groups are Bosnians (48%), Serbs (37%) and Croats (14.3%). The three religions are characterized by most members as follows – Islam, Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The consumption of alcoholic beverages in public can be considered an act of insult to Muslims. Tourists should avoid presenting their views about war or other sensitive topics. Bosnians are a friendly and hospitable people. In Muslim homes is customary for visitors to use barefoot and slippers. A common form of greeting is the kiss on the cheek, usually three times.
It gained independence during the wars of the 1990s and, according to Dayton Agreement, is administered by a representative appointed by the UN Security Council. It is decentralized and administratively divided in two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic Srpska. Bosnia is the primary geographic region of the modern state, and form the spinal column of history. Herzegovina is the most important of the other territories politically united with Bosnia, and was included in the official name of the country since the mid-19th century. Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of the seven republics of Yugoslavia. Herzegovina is the most important of the other territories politically united with Bosnia, and was included in the country’s official name since the mid-19th century.
Herzegovina was formerly an Austrian duchy (“Herzog” meaning “lead” in German). The territories were united administratively after Bosnia was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1463 and Herzegovina 20 years later. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into ten cantons. There are also towns with the administrative status: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla and Banja Luka. Brčko federal District was created by an arbitration decision as a territory under central government authority. Ecological Problems: Pollution due to the steel industry, lack of well-amenanjate urban waste disposal. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s economy is based mainly on agriculture (crop cultivation, animal caretaker, and others) and tourism (visits to the old areas with a Muslim architecture, maritime tourism, etc). Services are few, being a poor country. The industry is also left to the latter at the expense of agriculture.
The economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the weakest economies in Europe. The main trade partners in 2008 were: Export: Croatia (20.7%), Slovenia (16.7%) and Italy (16.6%); import: Croatia (24%), Slovenia (12.6%) and Germany (12.1%). Traditionally, since the Middle Ages, the population of Bosnia-Herzegovina was divided into three communities: Muslim, Orthodox and Catholic since the nineteenth century. Catholics identified themselves with the Croats and Orthodox were the Serbs. Muslim population self-definition was a slow process, which culminated with the recognitionof Muslim people as a people for the formation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1971. In 1993, Congress intellectuals recommended changing the name of Bosnian Muslim, with the name used today. The last census in Bosnia-Herzegovina took place in 1991 before the outbreak of the war. According to that census, Bosnia-Herzegovina had a population of 4,354,911 inhabitants, of whom 43.7% were Bosnians, Serbs 31.3%, 18.7% Croats and 5.5% Yugoslavs.
Bosnia-Herzegovina was the country most affected by the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 90s of last century. According to UN estimates, the 1992-1995 war led to the displacement of 2 million people (of all ethnicities and predominantly Bosnian Muslims, as claimed during the war) and caused the deaths of 100,000 people, civilians and military. After the war there was not other census and it is not foreseeable in the near future to organize a force because it would affect relations between the three communities. Traditionally, communities were identified as members of a religion: Bosnians are Muslim, Orthodox Christian are Serbs, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Croats are Roman Catholics.
According to estimates by the CIA in 2000, there were living in Bosnia-Herzegovina 4 million of which 48% are Bosnians, 37% Serb, Croat 14.3% and 0.6% of the population belongs to other ethnic groups (especially Roma). On the UNESCO World Heritage List are included the following objectives in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the Bridge and the historic center of Mostar (2005); the bridge Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic in Visegrad (2007). The Slavs were the first that settled in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,400 years ago. In 1391 Bosnia and Herzegovina enters the crisis being conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman rule lasted until 1878. In the years 1878-1918 it comes into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918 Bosnia and Herzegovina comes into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia). At the breakup of Yugoslavia, war broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992-1995. The conflict was ended with the international community by supervening with the Dayton Agreement.
The present territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina was inhabited by Illire tribes. In ancient Roman period, the conquest of these territories, which started in the territory of the Republic is completed and is included in the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Iliricum.
After the division between East and West Roman Empire, the line between the two components was passing through the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The setting of the Slavs on the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina today takes place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Since the tenth century the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina today becomes an object of dispute between the feudal states of Serbs, Croats and, after 1102, also of the Hungarian Kingdom. Bosnian feudal state is formed in the twelfth century and reached its climax in the second half of the fourteenth century, under King Tvrtko.
After his death in 1391, the Bosnian state entered in crisis, being conquered in the fifteenth century by the Ottoman Empire. The process of conquest is completed in 1481.
Ottoman rule lasted until 1878. It is significant that, during this period, much of the glory of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s population has converted to Islam. However in the Province of Bosnia, remained significant Christian population, Orthodox and Catholics. Between 1878 and 1918, Bosnia-Herzegovina comes into the Austro-Hungarian Empire as a province administered together by the two components of the Monarchy. In 1918, Bosnia-Herzegovina comes into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In 1941 the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina is included in the Independent State of Croatia, established with support from Germany. The territory of Bosnia is turning into a place of conflict between German forces, Croat, Serb royalists (Chetniks) and supporters of Josip Broz Tito’s communists.
At the end of the war, Bosnia-Herzegovina comes into the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. Between 1945 and 1992, Bosnia saw a period of relative prosperity and development. Yugoslavia’s collapse sparked a bloody war in Bosnia-Herzegovina, between 1992 and 1995. The conflict was ended in 1995, following intervention by the international community of the Dayton Agreement. Bosnia-Herzegovina has undertaken a process of negotiations with the European Union aiming at long-term integration within the Union. In 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its sovereignty, and in March 1992 declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Independence was obtained in March 1992 in front of Yugoslavia (from March 1, 1992 referendum for independence was completed and on March 3, 1992 declared its independence).
The present territory of Bosnia – Herzegovina was part of the provinces of Iliricum and Dalmatia. In fourth and fifth centuries the Goths had occupied the area, until the sixth century, when the area was claimed by the Byzantines. In the seventh century in this region the Slavs have installed. Around the year 1200 Bosnia gained independence from Hungary, an independent Christian state remaining time of 260 years. In 1463 the Turks managed to gain territory in Bosnia and the 450 years of Ottoman rule many Muslim Slavs have become Christians. After being expelled from Spain, many Hebrew have found a home in Bosnia, so that in the nineteenth century, the term included the Bosnian people of all religions.
Aided by Russia, Serbia and Montenegro fought the Ottoman Empire in 1876, and the Congress of Berlin, which followed the Russo-Turkish, Austro-Hungary, was allowed to lead Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result, it created hostility between the Empire and Serbia, which also claimed the two countries. Ultimately were the assassination of the archduke Austrian Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo and the outbreak of war. In 1918, Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to Serbia as part of the new Kingdom of Serbia, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed Yugoslavia. At the end of World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina became one country, one of the six republics of communist Yugoslavia under the leadership of Marshall Tito. After his death followed the division of Yugoslavia and declared independence of Bosnia – Herzegovina in 1991.
Unlike other states of former Yugoslavia, which consisted of a dominant ethnic group, Bosnia was a mixture of Muslims, Serbs and Croats. Presidents of Serbia and Croatia were planning to divide Bosnia between them and only managed to start a war of ethnic cleansing, the expulsion or massacre of Muslims. Between 1992 and 1995 approximately 250,000 people died. With the help of NATO forces in 1996 and presidential elections took place was won by a Bosnian Muslim Alija Izetbegovic. In 1994 it established the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague, who declared the Serbian General Radislav Drstic guilty of genocide and the trial of former Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic remained without verdict at his death in 2006. Serbian state admitted to being responsible for the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian Muslims at Srebrenica in 1995, but the International Court of Justice has not directly accused in Serbia, which is exempt from paying war reparations to Bosnia.
Political System – At the state level – President: Bosnia and Herzegovina is composed of three members of a presidency (one Bosniak, Croat and one Serb), elected by direct vote of the people for a term of four years. Leadership is determined by the tripartite presidency rotates every eight months. The President is head of state. Powers of the Presidency refers mainly to foreign policy, appointment of ambassadors, international treaties, cooperation with international organizations and NGOs. The legislative power of the country lies in the hands of bicameral Parliamentary Assembly, based in the capital Sarajevo. Each room has a president and two vice-presidents (one Serb, one Croat and one Bosnian).
House of Representatives is a body composed of 42 members, elected on the basis of party lists in two constituencies (28 members are elected to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while 14 members are elected in the Republic of Serbia), for a term of two years. People’s Chamber has 15 members (five Serbs, 5 Bosniaks and 5 Croats) indirectly elected by the House of People’s Federation and the RS National Assembly for a term of two years. Council of Ministers is charged with overseeing foreign policy, economic and tax, representing the national government. Chairperson (also known as Premier) is nominated by the president and his appointment is subject to approval by the House of Representatives. Ministers and their deputies are nominated by the President of the Council of Ministers, their appointment must be approved by the House of Representatives.
Under the Constitution, no more than two-thirds of the ministers may be appointed by the Federation territory. Each minister has two deputies, who may not have the same nationality as the prime minister. President, ministers and their deputies form the cabinet, which currently includes six ministers and 12 deputies. Each entity has a chairman and a vice-president, who are members of the executive. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Parliament is a bicameral legislative body, where each room is headed by a chairman and a vice-president. House of Representatives consists of 140 members, the House of the People has 80 members, of which 30 are Croatian, 30 Bosnian and 20 are other nationalities. Federation Parliament members are elected for a term of two years.
Serbian National Assembly is a unicameral body composed of 83 members elected by popular vote in Republic Srpska, according to the proportional representation system. Members are elected for a term of two years. Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is headed by the Premier and his deputy, including 12 ministers and their deputies, and two ministers without portfolio. The Republic Srpska government is led by Premier and consists of four of his deputies and 17 ministers. The Constitutional Court consists of nine members: four are elected by the Chamber of Representatives of the Federation, two by the National Assembly of Republika Srpska, and three non-Bosnian members are elected by the President of the European Court of Human Rights.
State Court of BiH consists of 33 national and seven international judges, with three divisions – Administrative, and Criminal Appeal – jurisdiction over cases related to national legislation and territorial entities that are submitted and refers to the sovereignty, independence BiH’s political or national security or the economic crimes that have serious repercussions on the economy of BiH, thus exceeding the jurisdiction of an entity or the Brcko district. In March 2005, was established a War Crimes Chamber. Each entity has a series of Supreme Courts and lower courts. Federation is a cantonal court and several municipal courts and the Republic Srpska has five municipal courts. Office of the High Representative (OHR) oversees implementation of civilian aspects of Dayton. OIR has extensive powers of intervention and can, for example, to remove politicians from office on grounds of infringement of the terms of the Dayton Agreement. The High Representative is nominated by the Steering Committee on Peacekeeping Council (PIC) and endorsed by the United Nations Security Council. OSCE Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina was mandated in December 1995 to promote democratic values, monitor and ensure human rights to organize and oversee elections and to implement measures for arms control and security of buildings.11