Travel Guides: Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. The city is situated on both banks of the Danube. In the east of the Danube is Pest, which occupies two thirds of the surface and on the west side is Buda, the other third of the city. Budapest has approx. 1.7 million people. Buda neighborhood and the area of the Danube hills in Budapest were included in 1987 on the UNESCO world cultural heritage list.
The territory of Budapest is 525 km². It is surrounded by the county Pest, county in which 81 settlements are part of the metropolitan area. The Hungarian capital has a diagonal of 25 km in a north-south direction and 29 km east-west direction. The minimum height is 96 meters (at the rate of the middle Danube water) and has a maximum altitude in Mount János, 527 meters.
It has an important role in Hungary’s land links because from here go the Hungarian roads and it is also a central node of the railway network. The city is divided by the Danube, which crosses the Hungarian capital in a north-south direction. The contrast is obvious geographically, the right side of the river lies on the hills, mountains and the plain of Pest on the left side, with small hills to the northeast, where begin the Gödöllő Hills.
Buda side is the living area and rest of the city, the economic zones in the north and south, and Pest is the administrative, commercial and industrial, with large residential neighborhoods and large entertainment establishments. In Budapest on the Danube area are three islands. Among them is the biggest city south of Csepel Island, its northern part being the twenty-first century, whose official name is the Csepel, just like the name of the island.
As size is followed by Margarita Island, with many historical riches, and the smallest in size is Óbuda Island, actual and Hajógyári-Sziget (Island shipyard). In the immediate vicinity of the area north of the city is the administrative Szentendrei Island, which takes up Dunakanyar (curvature of the Danube).
Budapest is located in the temperate zone, being a city with temperate continental transition, the average annual temperature is 11.0 ° C. The hottest month is July, the average temperature reaching 21 ° C. Most maximum was 40.7 ° C measured on 20 July 2007. The cooler month is January; the average temperature is around -1.6 ° C. Last day of spring is April 15. The annual number of sunny hours is 2040. The average amount of precipitation is 516 mm, with most precipitation months are June and November.
On the Danube are usually two waves of annual flow, first in late winter (icy stream) and the second in early spring (green feed). Budapest is a capital protected from wind, thanks to the Carpathians and the trans-Danubian Mountains. Dominant wind direction is Northwest. In autumn, the lack of wind leads to heavy fog increases.
City Ak-Ink was founded by the Celts on the right bank of the Danube. In Roman times it receives the name Aquincum, becoming the center of government of Lower Pannonia. On the left bank of the river was built a new city with the name Trans-Aquincum, called Contraaquincum. The two cities were connected by a bridge on boats, so the trade between the two sides of the Danube can be made.
In the fourth century, began to spread Christianity in the province, but this was halted by the invasion of the Huns in 375. According to Hungarian medieval chronicles, in around 450 Attila’s brother, Buda, renamed Aquincum, appointed the time and Sicambria, after his name. According to other sources the name would come from the Slavic word voda, “water.”
After the collapse of Hun Empire, the city was dominated by the Goths (493-560), the Avars (560-800), the Franks (800-880). For 880-889 years became Hungarian territory.
The first written attestation of Pest dates from 1148, when it was built on the ruins of the city Contraaquincum. From the thirteenth century the towns began to flourish, but this is off the Mongol invasion in 1241, when both were on fire.
King Béla IV rebuilt the two cities. He moved the capital to Óbuda. He built a stone fortress of resistance against the Mongol invasion in 1285. The town became known worldwide in 1279, when the Council takes Buda. Construction of the palace and fortress of Buda was started by Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1417, with a predominantly German population.
From this comes the name of Ofen, Buda used parallel. The city reached its peak under Matthias Corvinus. He increased Sigismund’s palace and introduced water through lead pipes. He was the founder of the library “Corvina” with 50,000 copies, many costing over 1000 gold florins. At that time Buddha are among the most famous cities in Europe on the cultural, academic and commercial.
In 1526 the Turks captured Buda, the Hungarian diet was moved to Pozsony, today Bratislava. In the 145 years of Turkish rule, most bathrooms are built in the city, and Gül Baba’s funeral monument, which is today a pilgrimage site for the Turks and Arabs.
Christian Army liberated the town on 2 September 1686, and Emperor Leopold I takes the privilege to free the city in 1703 and both Pest and Buda, the latter being officially declared the capital city.
In those years (early 1700) cities are completely rebuilt and in 1749 Empress Maria Theresa begins rebuilding the palace in Buda. In the next century is being built first permanent bridge over the Danube, Chain Bridge – Lánchíd (1839-1849), but other remarkable buildings too, the Technical University (1846) National Theatre (1837), National Museum (1838).
After the unification of the three cities (Óbuda, Buda, Pest), Budapest was divided into 10 sectors and was designed in such a systematic way in terms of politics, as in case of necessity to be governed and hence the entire Austro -Hungary. This approach brought many new buildings, like Opera, Music Academy, Nyugati Station, Central Station (Keleti today).
It improves circulation in the capital; piers were built on both banks of the Danube bridges Margit (Margaret), Szabadság (Freedom) and north of the railway. Avenues were built in the shape of semicircle, with bridges at both ends. Under the city was built a tunnel Buda (1853), and the first subway in Pest in 1896 and second on the continent of Europe (the first being in London).
Between 1884 and 1902 on the left bank of the Danube was built the Hungarian Parliament building. In the interwar period formed the suburbs, but the mayors of this period have not taken responsibility to set up large Budapest. In the 1940s some city residents were deported to war resulting in the bombing and destruction of a large part of Budapest.
There followed years of Communism, when it did not matter any local interest, Budapest became the 20th “county” of Hungary. The 10 sectors established to unite the three cities were developed in 14 sectors in 1930 and in 1950, have included suburban towns and villages – that formed the Big-Budapest – bringing to 22 the number of sectors. Budapest in the autumn of 1956 rebelled against Soviet occupation.
It began on 23 October with a student march. Prime Minister Imre Nagy, with the support of the army, tried to establish a socialism with a human face, but the revolution was crushed by Soviet military tanks, Budapest was destroyed just 11 years after the end of the Second World War II. There followed years of repression. Since 1960, the situation has changed, Kádár regime leading a more tolerant (so-called “goulash communism”). In 1970 Hungary became the most liberal Communist country.
The ’80s brought the city an underground political movement, which the dictatorship, weak, would overlook. At the end of the decade, Hungary, the first Eastern European countries, has replaced the communist regime with a democratic government. Became Mayor of Budapest Gábor Demszky, that continued the development of the city, which had been suspended for nearly a century. On June 30, 1991, Hungary withdrew the last Soviet military formations. The event is commemorated every year in the last weekend of June in Budapest as a patron.
Famous names that link to Budapest – It binds the cities Buda and Pest from the Middle Ages were named after saints Hungarian Szent Gellért tér (St. Gellert Square) and Gellért-hegy (Gellért Hill) after bishop martyr St. Gellert, Margit-Sziget (Margaret Island), Margit hid (Margaret Bridge), Margit körút (cercular Margaret Avenue) was named after the daughter of King Béla IV of Saint Margaret.
After King Matthias Corvinus was called Matthias Church in Buda Castle. 150 Ottoman occupations have left behind him names after “Father Rose” Rose hill dervish Gül Baba (Rózsadomb). As Budapest rose, Empress Maria Theresa’s memory is alive in the name of sector VI, Terézváros (City of Teresa) and Teresa körút (cercular Teresa Boulevard). And other sectors Habsburg emperors called: Lipótváros (City of Leopold), Krisztinaváros (City of Cristina), Józsefváros (Joseph’s Town), Ferencváros (City of Francis).
But the most beloved person dynasty was Queen Elizabeth, after which they called Erzsébetváros (City of Elizabeth), Erzsébet körút (cercular Elizabeth Avenue) and Erzsébet hid (Elisabeth Bridge).
Famous people with links to Budapest – Listing them would be impossible because of the years of reform famous Hungarians were somehow connected with the Hungarian capital. Those who have come to Budapest: Széchenyi István; Archiduke Joseph Paldinul, Hungarian Kingdom (son of Leopold II), renowned architects of the second part of the nineteenth century (Ybl Miklós, Frigyes Schulek, Imre Steindl) Frigyes Podmaniczky, the greatest mayors of Budapest (Károly Kamermayer – the first mayor István Bárczy merged), and not least Raoul Wallenberg, honorary citizen of Budapest post-mortem, the rescuer 100,000 Budapest during the pandemonium caused by the Second World War.
Institutions in Budapest, which are named after a famous Hungarian: Eötvös Loránd Universitet (named after the Eötvös Loránd), the Semmelweis University (named after Ignac Semmelweis) or Korányi Hospital (named after Frigyes Korányi). Many names have been kept by the shops, factories founded by the persons concerned, for example, drugmaker Richter Gedeon Richter Gedeon SA founded, named restaurant Gundel Károly Gundel or Spirits Zwack factory (manufacturer bitter “Unicum”) is called Dr. Zwack, Dr. Emperor Joseph II.
Cultural institutions like Erkel Theatre (named after Ferenc Erkel) Karinthy Theatre (named after Frigyes Karinthy), Museum of Bajor Gizi actors (named after Gizi Bajor), or sports, like Ferenc Puskas Stadium (named after Ferenc Puskás) or Arena László Papp Sports (named after László Papp) are other buildings that remind us of the wonderful people who were born, lived or were in some way related to Budapest.
Hungarian capital has a crest in the Gothic style, a French born with red enamel, tripartite fascia (the girdles) a narrower fascia wavy silver, representing the Danube. At the top is a golden castle (yellow) with a single tower and a single gate, representing over, and the bottom gold castle (yellow) with three towers and two gates, representing the Buddha and Óbuda. Both cities have opened its doors with a blue background. As support, on the right stands a golden lion and on the left a golden griffin. Above the shield is the Holy Hungarian Crown. Coat of Arms is officially used by the animal without the stem and crown.
With local elections, are elected by direct vote: Mayor, members of the General Assembly of the capital, local mayors and members of sectors. Gezogenen mayor and mayors are elected by the system of sectors based on a simple majority vote, members of local councils are elected by mixed voting system (simple majority system is combined (individual) and lists (lists of party)). General Assembly members are elected by Capital lists system, the minimum being 4%.
A citizen of the Hungarian capital to express its choice at the most local election ballots in the country, as follows:
1. ballot with candidates for mayor general;
2. ballot with candidates for mayor;
3. individual ballot with candidates for local councils in the sector;
4. ballot with the parties and / or civic association, who will arrive in the General Budapest originally had 10 sectors, which were founded in 1873 to unify the three component cities. Three sectors have been formed on the right bank of the Danube, the Buda and Óbuda within cities, sectors on the left side and 7 on the city of Pest. These were numbered with Roman numerals, tradition remains today. In 1930, taking into account population growth, have not yet been created four divisions, two in Budapest, Pest County and two in the capital.
On 1 January 1950 Budapest was united with the county seven cities and 16 municipalities as a large number had increased to 22 sectors. Sector boundaries were also changed, and the cancellation of the fourth sector until then, this number has been assigned industry sector consists of Újpest town. The remaining sectors were numbered from the XV to XXII.
Since 1994 Budapest has 23 sectors, the sector formed of Budapest XXIII Soroksári common in the former, the separation of the territories of the twentieth. Sectors are numbered for the purposes of Budapest walking clock, from the inside out. Because the system was divided into three steps, now numbering system that is no longer easy to see.
Of the 23 sectors on the Buda side, 16 are on the Pest side and one 1 on Csepel island between the two parties. Local councils – exclusively from local councils in Hungary – have the right to name them. In this way formal sectors have two names: one name given by the state administration (third sector of the capital Budapest) and the other name of the administrative board (Óbuda-Békásmegyer).
The beauty of the city sights in Budapest are a perfect holiday destination for a romantic weekend. Considered by many to be one of the world’s most beautiful cities, Budapest is a city where tourism is well developed. The numbers of people who choose Budapest as a holiday destination is 20 million annually. Hungarian people are very proud of the country’s capital which over time had an important contribution to European cultural landscape, especially in music, a universal language that does not need to talk it to appreciate it.
More cosmopolitan than Prague, more romantic and beautiful that Warsaw, or both, Budapest is situated on the Danube at the confluence of the Great Pannonian Plain and the hills of Buda. Parks are more or less interesting and beautifully arranged, museums full of treasures, cruise ships sailing smoothly on the great river. Budapest also offers thermal baths and an Ottoman-era nightlife that makes its presence felt until dawn.
Hungarian capital is one of the cities of the Old Continent. Nature is very generous with Budapest, the city and countryside around it is very beautiful, but also the contribution of people is at least as impressive. In terms of architecture, Budapest is a diamond with influences from Baroque, Neoclassical and Art Nouveau. In the golden age of capitalism in the late nineteenth century, most buildings that can be seen today were built.
In some areas, especially along Nagykörút (the great ring road) and Andrássy út until Városliget area (Park City), Budapest deserves an awful nickname “Paris of Central Europe.” Almost every building has some interesting details from neoclassical relief to holes left by bullets in the Second World War or the uprising of 1956. In some areas of Budapest wounds are not hidden.11