Travel Guides: Costa Rica
Costa Rica, official name Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to south – south east, west Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea to the south and east. Costa Rica was the first country in the world to constitutionally abolish its army.
In pre-Columbian times the indigenous people who lived in areas today known as Costa Rica were part of the intermediate zone located between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions. These things have recently been updated to include the area’s influence Isthmo-Columbian in the South Atlantic region defined by the presence of groups that speak Chibchan languages. But it is unknown which of these groups created the famous stone spheres of Costa Rica, between 200 BC and 1600 AD.
The country was visited by Christopher Columbus in 1502, during its fourth expedition. He reached Cariay, before the island Quiribrí (now Isla Uvita). Following the conquest and colonization of the area was complicated by the distance and the fierce resistance of the natives, who still does not compare to the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
In the 16th century, the area was a marked weakening of labor.
Indigenous population, slaves at that time, the crowd began to fall prey to diseases brought by settlers, or die in the battles of resistance. Also, the lack of mineral resources and fertile soils that were in the central part of the country (Central Valley) delayed the colonization effort. All these circumstances have made Costa Rica, the southernmost part of the captain general of Guatemala, the poorest region and irrelevant. However, settlers who have made the journey full of hardship Central Valley have established a provincial capital of Cartago.
In 1821, the winds of freedom started to blow from the north. United States and Mexico recently gained their independence in the capital of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, Guatemala City, began protests demanding independence. On 15 September 1821 they declared their independence from the Spanish Empire. At that time, several of the Mexican states of this belonged to the Captaincy, so to spread the word in all the Member was sent a messenger on horseback through Central America.
Because Costa Rica was the most southern province, it made news of its independence to be received on October 13, 1821. The fact that not a single shot was necessary to achieve independence of Costa Rica was a peace loving nation. Among the documents received from Guatemala, is a document that was created in Nicaragua. This document is called “Los Nublados del Dia” which means “clouds of the day.” In this document the Nicaraguan government, which at that time was much more developed and therefore closer to the colonial laws, insisting that the state will not immediately proclaim its independence, but to wait for “cloud day” to disappear, to take a final decision .
However, because this document only arrived in Costa Rica, it had limited influence.
After gaining independence, Costa Rica, along with other provinces of the Captaincy, briefly joined the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. Due to the distance of the Mexican capital and the existence of other conflicts, the countries of Central American countries including Costa Rica became the United Provinces of Central America between 1823 and 1839. In 1824, the capital was moved to San José.
In 1838 Costa Rica proclaimed its independence as a sovereign and independent nation under the leadership of Braulio Carrillo Colina. In 1856 Costa Rican army, led by Juan Rafael Mora Porras led the invasion ousted by William Walker. In the battle of Santa Rosa, Rivas and campaign in San Juan, the invading army was forced to renounce its intentions. National hero Juan Santamaría fought in the Battle of Rivas, where the fire “Mesón” where the invaders fled.
Costa Rica has avoided the violence that has plagued Central America it is seen as an example of political stability in the region. From the late 19th century only two brief periods of violence have disrupted its democratic development. In 1949, José Figueres Ferrer abolished the army, making Costa Rica the first country to operate in a democratic system without the assistance of an army (an example later followed by other countries such as Panama).
Costa Rica was a largely agricultural nation. However, in recent decades, Costa Rica has achieved a high standard of living. Fast-growing electronics industry is the most important industry, along with tourism, aided by social stability and environmental richness.