Travel Guides: England
England is the largest and most densely populated country in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
By 1707 England was an independent kingdom, the Kingdom of England. In 1707 it merged with Scotland, thus creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. For some, England is synonymous with Britain or the United Kingdom, which, however, is incorrect and it touches on Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The name England comes from “Land of England” referring to England, the west German tribe who settled on the island in the fifth century and which came from the peninsula Jutland (today Germany and Denmark). With them sat two other West Germanic tribes: Jutes (from Jutland Peninsula) and Saxons (from north-western Germany today). The name of England in the Cornish language is Pow Sowse, which means “Land of Saxons”.
England covers two thirds of central and southern Great Britain, plus offshore islands from the coast, of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. England is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. Continental Europe is closer than any other part of Britain, separated from France by 52 km of sea (22 nautical miles). Channel Tunnel, near Folkstone links directly England with continental Europe. English-French border is halfway along the tunnel. Much of England is hilly, mountainous in the north in general with not to high mountains, Pennine Mountains separating eastern from west. Other hilly areas in the north and Midlands are the Lake County (The Lake District), the North York Moors (North York Marshes) and the Peak District. The approximate line of demarcation between the terrains is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. South of this line are large areas of flat land, including East England and the Fens, hilly areas including the Cotswolds, the Chilterns and the North and South Downs.
The largest natural harbor in England is Poole, on the south-central coast. Some consider it the 2nd largest port in the world after Sydney in Australia although this is debatable. London is the capital of England and the UK capital. The urban agglomeration of London has about 7.35 million inhabitants. England does not have a legislature or a government that is responsible for the entire country, unlike the other three countries, but is led by the UK Parliament and UK Government by default. There are discussions on the creation of a parliament or separately granting of legislative powers of the nine regions of England. There have been created following the decision of the European Union after the Treaty of Maastricht. Besides London, the powers of the regions are very limited.
London Region is divided into the City of London and 31 London boroughs what are called together Greater London and are managed by Greater London Authority. Other regions are composed of counties which may be metropolitan or non-metropolitan. They are in turn subdivided into districts (which may be called cities, sites burg, burg’s royal boroughs or simply metropolitan districts). In some places, counties and districts work together as a “unitary authority”. Under the district operates, without a uniform distribution covering the whole territory, the civil parishes. Parish Councils or City Councils are basically just small towns and rural areas that are rarely found in cities and prohibited within Greater London.
England has a temperate climate with much rain during the year, although the seasons are very different in temperature. However, temperatures rarely drop below -5 degrees C or rise above 30 degrees C. The wind blows predominantly from the southwest bringing a mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the driest in the east and warmest in the south, which is closest to the European mainland. Snow may fall in winter and early spring. England played an important role in advancing Western architecture. It is the cradle of the most notable medieval castles and forts in the world, including Warwick Castle, the Tower of London, Windsor Castle (Windsor Castle, the largest inhabited castle in the world and inhabited the longest time). England is known for its numerous grand country houses, medieval churches and cathedrals and later as York Minster.
British architects have contributed to many styles over the centuries, including Tudor architecture, English Baroque, Georgian style and movements as Victorian Gothic Revival. Among the best known contemporary British architects are Norman Foster and Richard Rogers. Languages: English, Gaelic language in Scotland, Wales Gaelic. Religion: Anglican (90%), Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. Education: Oxford: More than a simple university, Oxford is one of the most beautiful cities in England. Excellent preserved, it is a conglomeration of narrow alleys, houses built of honey-colored stone and guarded by statues of fantastic animals. The University complex includes 40 independent colleges the oldest of these (and all over the country) was founded in 1200. There is also Bodleian Library, one of the first libraries of the world that opened its doors in 1602. On its shelves are hosted 5 million rare books, including a very valuable collection of manuscripts.
The cradle of the second British universities, Cambridge has opened its doors to students since the thirteenth century. In gratitude, each generation of architects has built here a group of buildings representing each era spirit, so that now, here are gathered the most beautiful buildings in all England. The largest complex of colleges, Trinity College, was founded by Henry VIII in 1546. It is remarkably beautiful yard in the seventeenth century, where they picked up a splendid library, designed by Christopher Wren. Above the counters of the massive Great goalkeeper Tom is a large clock that announces the passing of each hour sound and that it is possible to be admired without knowing the film Chariots of Fire. Among the college students we may include Prince Charles, who attended in the ’60s.
England has a vast and influential culture that encompasses both old and new elements. Modern culture of England is sometimes difficult to identify and difficult to separate the culture of the entire United Kingdom because they are very connected nations. However English traditional culture and historical remains are distinct with substantial regional differences. English Heritage is a government body with a delivery of range of historical sites, artifacts and surroundings of England. British Museum of London, British Library and National Gallery contain the finest collections in the world. England has played an important role in arts and sciences. Many of the most important figures in modern philosophical thought and Western science is that it is born at some point he was here or even lived in England.
Prominent British thinkers of international significance include scientists as Sir Isaac Newton, Francis Bacon, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin and Ernest Rutherford (born in New Zealand), philosophers like John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Bertrand and Thomas Hobbes, and economists like David and John Maynard Keynes. The National Rugby England won the Rugby World Cup in 2003. Modern sports in Britain have been collated during the XIXth century, among them cricket, rugby union and league, football, tennis and badminton. Of these, association football, cricket and rugby remain the most popular sports of the country. England national football team is placed 15th by FIFA and the 8th by Elo and won the 1966 World Cup held in England.
Since then failed to obtain a final in any major international tournament, although it reached the semi-finals in 1990 World Cup, the quarter-finals in 2002 and 2006 and Euro in 2004. England national rugby team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup and finished 2nd in 2007. Rugby clubs as Leicester Tigers, London Wasps and Northampton Saints have had success in the Heineken Cup of Europe. England national rugby league is considered by the Rugby League 3rd place in the world and first in Europe. It took part in three World Cups, finishing on the 2nd place in 1975 and 1995, in the last being the host. In 2008 it played for the World Cup in Australia. Famous footballers: John Terry, Chelsea FC; Wayne Rooney, Manchester United; Rio Ferdinand, Manchester United; Carragher, Liverpool FC; Steven Gerrard, Liverpool FC; Frank Lampard, Chelsea FC.
England comprises multiple facets, from the vibrant pulse of old habits, avant-garde culture, beaches and rocky mountains. Here is London, the largest city in Europe, and some of the most famous attractions in the world – Stonehenge, the White Cliffs of Dover, St. Paul’s Cathedral and the London Eye. England is divided into several regions, each with its own history, culture and traditions. In North Country (northern region) will discover the splendor of the lakes, mountains, castles, coast and national parks, the medieval city of York and flap animated cities like Liverpool and Manchester, famous for football and music culture.
In the Midlands (middle region) are vibrant cities like Birmingham and Nottingham, and a mixture of culture and history in the city where Shakespeare was born, Stratford-upon-Avon. London is the largest financial center in the world and is full of cultural attractions for all ages. East of England is one corner of primordial nature, the seaside resort and university town of Cambridge. The other historic university city of England, Oxford, is in south-east and on the south coast you will find excellent beaches and resorts such as Brighton and the historic towns of Winchester and Canterbury cathedrals. Country (western region) offers the rocky coast of Cornwall, with excellent surfing and in south-west you can visit the picturesque villages of the Cotswolds, Somerset, Devon, Salisbury Cathedral and Stonehenge.
By becoming a single nation 1,000 years ago, England has its origins in early civilization, this being reflected in the attractions offered. Due to the variety of invaders, settlers and immigrants who arrived here over the centuries, Britain enjoys a rich cultural mix, today being one of the favorite destinations of visitors from around the world. Main attractions: London – The building of Parliament, Westminster Abbey and St Paul’s Cathedral; Buckingham Palace, designed by John Nash, the official royal residence since 1837. Tower of London is one of the most popular attractions of Great Britain and was the place where the Crown Jewels are since 1303. The Tower has served variously as palace, prison, treasury, zoo and arsenal. Lived here all monarchs, from Richard the Conqueror (XI century) to Henry VIII (XVI century).
Windsor Castle is the largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the Queen’s official residences. There are exceptional works of art, and masterpieces by Rembrandt, Rubens, Holbein, Van Dyck and French and English furniture and porcelain. Look at the height of the capital, the London Eye, located on the south bank of the Thames, across the street from Westminster. Admire the lifestyle of King Henry VIII at Hampton Court Palace, west London, near the Thames. Take a tour of museums, churches and galleries in London. Admire the architecture of historic university cities of Oxford and Cambridge. Visit circular cliffs 5,000 years older than Stonehenge, one of the greatest ancient monuments in the world.
Marvel at the lovely city of Bath with the Roman baths. Admire the York City architecture, with its magnificent cathedral, the largest church in northern Europe, city walls and Viking past. Visit the medieval cathedrals of Norwich, Lincoln and Durham. Go to a play at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon. Lake District National Park is one of the most beautiful regions of England and offers a mixture of mountains and lakes, which includes 16 lakes. The region has attractive villages and hiking trails. British cuisine has been shaped by the country’s temperate climate, geography and history. Traditional foods such as bread, cheese, meat or stew made toast, meat pies and fish have ancient roots, and today, other traditional dishes such as fish fries and sausage with mash and gravy are rivaled that of dishes from America, India and China.
Once considered the enemy, eating habits in France and Italy are now admired and copied. Recently, Britain has adopted the US fast food products. Among the best known traditional dishes include England Fish and Chips (fish and chips, traditionally eaten on paper by hand), Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding (roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, potatoes and seasoned with vegetables), Steak and Kidney Pie (a pie filled with meat sauce and kidney) and Cornish paste (a mixture of meat, potatoes and other vegetables, wrapped in crispy batter). There are archaeological discoveries that indicate that southern England was colonized by humans long before the other territories of the British Isles. Remains of bones and tools show that homo erectus lived in England 700,000 years ago.
By then Britain was united with mainland Europe by a stretch of land. England’s first guests were farmers, gatherers in Europe, around 8000 BC, followed by Belgium, Celtic and Gaul, which laid the foundation for today’s multi-cultural heritage of England. When the Romans invaded England in 43, have found here a very developed tribal culture, but were forced to leave territories to defend the empire. The following territory they claimed were Anglo-Saxons, followed by the Vikings. Norman Conquest in 1066 brought major changes in language and customs. Middle Ages were marked by war with France, political and religious riots and the black plague. In the late Middle Ages, the Tudor dynasty brought the lead with many wives of King Henry VIII and ended with Queen Elizabeth I.
During the reign of Queen Victoria in the nineteenth century, British power spread across the globe. Followed the twentieth century, when wars and empire shortage has left a negative impact on the economy and morale of the inhabitants. We know that time is always a topic of discussion in England, and that because of its changeable nature. You never know how the weather will be tomorrow. The least pleasant months are from November to February, when the days are short and cold. The most pleasant months are no doubt from April to September. During this period, most attractions are open to visitors and tourist season is full swing. The less positive is that July and August are very busy. Coast national parks, popular cities like London and Oxford, Bath and York are filled with people.
The capital of England, London is a mix between traditional and modern, high steel towers creeping among Georgian and Victorian houses old. The most beautiful places in London are located in Old Town, Cathedral and the Tower of London St. Paul, being only a few. Most precious symbol of London is Buckingham Palace, at the end of the famous Promenade Mall. This is the home and place of work of the Windsor family. The palace is composed of 19 fuss rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 78 bathrooms and 92 offices. In the north wing of the castle was the royal apartments, and between August and October, when the royal family left the building, the rooms are open to the public. Every day at 11:30 the royal guard change takes place, troopers with red tunics and bearskin hats being known for their sobriety.
Westminster Palace or the Palace of Parliament is the place where operate two chambers of Parliament, the Lords and Commons. Westminster Abbey has witnessed many important events in the history of England being crowned here many English monarchs, some of them sleeping and sleeps here forever. This is one of the oldest churches in the city, with an impressive medieval architecture. Tower of London and Tower Bridge, built in Gothic style to be similar in style to the nearby tower, is famous for its giant arms that rise to allow passage of large vessels. London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, the wheel is the highest of its kind in Europe with 135 m. When it was built it was the largest in the world but was overthrown by Nacht Star in Singapore. Other symbols in other cities are: British Museum, Kensington Palace, Hyde Park and Apsley House.
Manchester is the center of the most populated areas of England and an important industrial, cultural and commercial center. The city is best known for its influence on music history and ties with industry and sport. Chinatown hosts the majority of Asian restaurants and The Village, known as the Gay Village is the area which is the oldest and most stable communities of gay men in Europe. Every year, here is a gay festival. Castlefield is a former Roman settlement of the original, while being the center of the city’s network of channels and transport center of great historical importance. Attractions not to be missed are: Curry Mile, Manchester University, St. Mary, Mary Cathedral and museums of Manchester, History of the People, Hebrew and Urbis. The second largest city in England is Birmingham, one of the largest industrial centers in the world.
However much of the city is covered with greenery. Among the tourist attractions in the city include Aston Hall, Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Cadbury World, Soho House and many others. Leeds is located in the Yorkshire region and is considered to be the capital of northern England. It hosts many bars and clubs, with the large number of students, nightlife being among the most troubled in the country. The most important museum is the museum of armor Royal Armor, hosting collections transferred from the Museum Tower of London. The city owns several theaters, the most important being the Grand Theatre, North Opera and City Varieties. Leeds prides itself as the place where they filmed the first sequence of images in motion by Louis Le Prince on the Leeds Bridge.
England climate is very changeable and rain can occur without any warning; it is highly recommended appropriate outfits for rainy times. Accommodation can be done in modest or luxurious hotels, all prices are quite high. Regarding gastronomy, this is quite modest, but with specific European or Asian restaurants is found everywhere. England is one of the most beautiful countries in Europe. Among other countries like France, Italy, Spain is one of the most culturally rich countries having a tradition that even though it leads after a constitutional monarchy manages to attract an impressive number of tourists annually.
The first thing a tourist thinks when pronounces the name of this country is the capital London. This city is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Europe and the world that hosts a multitude of ethnicities and traditions from all over the world. In London there are a number of important institutions and global corporations: palaces, museums, concert halls, airports, railway stations, and numerous embassies and consulates. One of the main attractions is the very symbol of London’s Buckingham Palace the royal monarchy. Queen’s official residence was opened to the public for the first time in 1993. The history of the palace began in 1702 when the Duke of Buckingham built to serve as a residence. In 1761 he sold it to King George III who changed its name to Queen’s House. In 1820 during the reign of George IV the palace rooms were also built which doubled the size.
The interior is impressive. Vibrant colors, a ballroom, which measures 122 m opened in honor of Queen Victoria to celebrate the end of the Crimean War and the paintings of Rubens, Rembrandt, and the architectural jewelry makes it one of the most famous tourist attractions in the world. Glued to the N and E of the Palace there are two of the most famous green spaces of London St. James Park’s footpaths with trees and Green Park.
Park St. James has rich vegetation and a tranquil lake, offering shelter to a multitude of water birds. Green Park is wild and rugged. No floral arrangements or decorative fountains; only stretches of grass and forest, where Charles II used to do his daily walks. Also near these areas you might visit the park right next to James is Westminster, seat of government, dating about 1000 years ago. It is a holy place, burial place of British monarchs and also one of the largest and most beautiful gothic monasteries of the Middle Ages.
Remaining buildings in the area with political resonances on the north bank of the Thames we meet the Parliament Building. Bold Gothic structure was designed by Charles Barry and Augustine Pigin in 1831. The building, one of the triumphs of the Victorian era is measuring 280 m long, 3 km of passages and more than 1,000 rooms. Another famous castle is the Royal Windsor Castle which many say is really the most famous royal residence located 50 minutes by train from London. From Henry I of the twelfth century was the residence of English and British monarchs. William the Conqueror built the original construction, a building with two large wooden palisade walls surrounded by stone fortifications that were built in the twelfth century. In the nineteenth century George IV and Queen Victoria invested nearly a million pounds sterling for changes being mostly within the upper floors are restaurants.
Round Tower is considered by most people to be in Windsor Castle. Walking the 220 steps offers a wide view over the valley. South of the castle park is measuring 8000 hectares with a rich vegetation. Savill and Valley Gardens have the largest collection of rhododendrons in the world (alpine tree with glossy leaves, persistent, red-lilac fragrant flowers and peony-de-mountain). Perhaps the most famous square in England is the Trafalgar Square. It is one of the most impressive markets in the world, being built between 1830 and 1840 by Sir Charles Barry in memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar from 1809. It is a pentagon surrounded by classic style and elegant white facade dominated by Nelson’s column which measures 50 m high and four lions made in bronze. It is a transport node crossed by a dozen bus lines and five underground routes.
Along the northern flank of the square is the National Gallery, founded in 1825. In 1999, the Sainsbury Gallery designed by Robert Venturini houses a rich collection of Renaissance period. In 1856 it is founded near National Gallery the portraits which illustrate the history of British and now contains over 9,000 portraits of famous Britons and often organizes photographic exhibitions. In terms of places of worship in England and especially London are located in the capital cathedrals, churches and monasteries with a long tradition. Saint-Martin Church in-the-Fields is the oldest building built in Trafalgar Square with a simple yet elegant line by James Gibbs between 1722 and 1726.
It became known during the Second World War when it became a refuge during the bombings. It’s still a royal parish church in the east end. St. Paul’s Cathedral is on the Ludgate Hill; it was built between 1675 and 1710 being the first cathedral dedicated to the Protestant faith. Here ceremonies were held for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1897, Winston Churchill’s funeral and Prince Charles married Lady Diana. Form of government: constitutional monarchy. Population: 59,512,000 inhabitants (80% Anglo-Saxons, Scotland, Wales, Irish, Indians, Pakistanis, etc). Official language: English. Other languages spoken: French, Gaelic (official in Wales). Religion: Anglican (90%), Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, Muslim, Hindu and Sikh.
Capital: London (7 million inhabitants). Currency: British Pounds. Relief: Britain is an island nation consisting of several islands in the Atlantic Ocean and the surrounding seas, shores are heavily indented with fjords, rocky or low bays, sandy and shallow estuaries, mountains landscape consists of old worn, the rivers and coastal plains, in the north, in Scotland, the mountains are part of the plateau: Mountains Caledonia or Scotland Northern Mountains, separated from the rest of the Caledonian Canal, by the Grampian Mountains (Nevis Peak, 1343 m max alt), Mountains South of Scotland, to England rises Pennine Mountains (Pennine Chain) in Wales, in the west, there are Cambrian Mountains, in southern and eastern England lies a sedimentary plain, Plain of London.
Northern Ireland’s landscape is composed of massive granite, low altitude, and the narrow coastal plains, in the center there is a vacuum, water is short, but have a high flow and are connected by a system of channels: Thames (E), Trent (E), Severn (V), which flows into Bristol Bay, the Thames, as Trent flows into the North Sea through a deep estuary, during flow, the vessels enter the ocean to London, in Scotland there are lakes and Ners Lomond and Neagh in Northern Ireland and Eire. Climate: temperate and oceanic, influenced by winds from the west and the warm North Atlantic current (Gulf Stream); winters are mild, with high rainfall and summer temperatures are moderate; snow falls mainly in the north, in Scotland, the average temperature 6 C is in January and 22C in July.
Whether you love it or hate it, the United Kingdom can not be indifferent for anyone. The very name expresses its grandeur and power, and the monarchy in the world is today associated with the venerable house of Windsor and its representative, Queen Elizabeth II. History and culture were heavily influenced by the work of this island nation, whose arrogance can not be matched only by its own brilliance. Britain has always been a great power, stand proof of its beautiful baroque cathedrals and castles to them adorn myriad shores. Formerly the starting point of the industrial revolution, the kingdom remains at the forefront of the world’s economic giants. Nowhere in the world is not stuck amid more modern structures, classical, medieval origins. Current British cities are important industrial centers, but also cultural, urban real ant dependent latest trends in fashion and technology.
Beauty and the rich from all points of view, England has left Europe a charming prom queen, admired and disliked in equal measure to its compelling qualities. England offers many accommodation options, from luxury hotels to modest rooms in guest houses or farms. All are quite expensive, but prices at the hotels are downright exorbitant. Thus, a double room, all taxes paid, costs between 60 and 250 per night. Private homes (bed & breakfast) and those of guests are quite meager, most of them only access to a shared bathroom, but prices vary between 20 and 25 per night. Camping sites are also not some bargain in full season with a rate of 5-10 per day. Those who travel by car and want a rural experience can be accommodated on a farm. List open establishments for this purpose are available at the offices of British tourism. An alternative accommodation is the Youth Hostels (about 350 throughout the country), and college campuses, where rooms are rented only during school holidays.
All European companies have regular flights to London, Manchester, Newcastle, Edinburgh and Glasgow. Inside, six different airlines provide air transport between major cities. Domestic railway network is relatively well developed, but booking is recommended at least a day before the trip. The link with the rest of Europe via the Channel Tunnel is made of the Channel; there are direct flights to Paris (3:00) and Brussels (2:45 min.). Inside the country there are many waterways that run pleasure boats. The ferry routes can be run on Dover-Calais, Portsmouth-Caen and Plymouth-Bilbao (Spain) or Newcastle-Bergen (Norway). National Express coaches connect the majority of British villages, being extremely fast and efficient. Tickets are not cheap, but tourists can buy some permits to offer discounts on most trips. Hire cars are expensive in England and is not a solution because all cars in the kingdom were driving on the right and, of course, the traffic is carried on the left lane.
Although diligent enough as a nation, the British have their bad habits. Thus, some accommodation establishments, of lesser importance, it is possible to close their doors for 10 days during the holidays and even a few weeks in July-August. Not to have surprises, you should be interested in advance and make reservations sooner. For those who afford, England offers an original version and expensive accommodations: the historic buildings. More local tourism organizations have specialized in renting this category of visitor spaces warm. By using their services, you can spend your vacation in a Gothic temple, the building of an old lighthouse on the beach or even in a sumptuous apartment in Hampton Court Palace.
Reverse circulation is not the only challenge of England. Parking in big cities of the kingdom is a nightmare. Automated parking is very difficult to find and expensive as hell. Also, beware of yellow stripes on the road! One designates only the parking ban during the day, and a stationary double impossibility. In the capital of the phenomenon is so dramatic that it prompted the publication of a Guide London parking fee of 4.99 available in major bookstores in town. Mainland Europe to avenge the island kingdom is accusing it of mediocre and unimaginative kitchen. The truth is that nobody does gastronomy in Britain, but the accusation is exaggerated. Being composed of three different countries, the archipelago has an extremely varied cuisine, enriched by foreign influences without number.
They brought here cabbage and peas, with fresh cherries and especially wine. The Vikings have learned the Anglo-Saxons as dry and smoked fish, and the Normans came here with the good habit of eating beef. Expanding colonies generated here in a real frenzy of spices. Moreover, Britain is now full of restaurants of all types; tourists can order anything from continental food (Italian or French) to Asian specialties (Chinese and especially Indian). Few are truly English specialties. For the traditional breakfast remains extremely consistent, consisting of scrambled eggs with ham and beans with sausages. Specifically for the kingdom is tea, brought from India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), which the British use it daily, usually in the afternoon, sometimes with milk or lemon.
The entire local and the famous fish & chips are respectively over hot fried in oil bath, French fries, all wrapped in paper. If the wind is given by Scottish salmon prefer British beef, especially in spring. Pies are very popular in England, being prepared both sweet and salty (with meat or cheese). Britain’s favorite dessert pudding lies in the most famous and well known of these are due to lexical ambiguity: spotted dick, a pudding of cream or egg white foam with raisins, has a double meaning, gastronomic and sexual opportunity is often mockery of the islanders. Paradoxically, the best drinks in the islands are not English. Beer from Ireland is most splendid, usually stout or porter (black, fermented malt at a relatively high temperature).
In terms of alcohol, the Scots are the ones who set the tone. Whisky is made from single grains of barley or malt, and various other grains, being aged for several years in oak barrels. Most of the items sold in the world today are mixed (blended). Currently, worldwide there are two main types of whiskey. Most popular in Europe is scotch, originally, obviously, in Scotland. But it seems that Americans have developed a phobia of their English ancestors, now tilting the balance in favor of the drink called bourbon, a whiskey made from a mixture of grain containing not less than 51% corn and aged a minimum of two years in barrels oak.
Nobody knows how much mad cow disease has contributed to changing dietary habits of the British in 2003 but it is clear that the kingdom existed between 3 and 4 million vegetarians, which is one of the highest rates in Western Europe. In addition, 7 million Britons say they do not put their mouth on threat of death or any kind of red meat. For this reason, virtually no shop or restaurant that does not offer vegetarian customers. Rumor is that the British are a perfect illustration of the fable dog and puppy. Originally nobles, and bourgeoisie richer industrial revolution, it basked in wealth and eating all sorts of delicacies, while the poor in the corners of the empire died, literally, starving. Dramatic appropriate heads of the Irish, who died during the British, were unable to feed many Catholic families.
For the continentals, London might be defined by a few words: Big Ben, Thames, Lady Di, possibly BBC. But the English spirit is much more complex. The glory of a great empire is seen today by modern triumph of monarchy over republic. British tabloid’s main stars are not movie stars, but the royal family. And they live in town visiting Elizabeth II and Prince Charles involving minimal interference with them. Everything in London is related to the monarchy. At Westminster Abbey were crowned kings of England, starting with William the Conqueror, in 1066, and here were also buried. Also, there has been Princess Diana of Wales’s funeral. Buckingham Palace, royal residence, with spectacular shows daily: changing of the guard. Tower of London is included in the group of monarchical palaces where there is currently keeping the precious jewels of the Crown.
Within the boundaries of the same big city hide, in fact, two different localities. One is the old London, the capital of an ancient empire, where every building seems to tell a story. The other is New London, one of the main industrial centers, financial and commercial in the world today. British capital requires good days, if not weeks, to be discovered. If you do not have only a limited holiday, you set your priorities from the start, because many are worthy of in-depth issues in the city on the Thames. Lovers of history should turn their steps towards Westminster, where most of the monuments are grouped, especially those concerning the monarchy. The love of art can be extinguished or, instead, turn worse by visiting the famous British Museum, quoted immediately after the Louvre and Hermitage before. Side of sport is linked with names like Wembley or Wimbledon.
For shopping, there are famous department stores such as Harrods and Barkers, and outlets of local milliner, highly rated internationally. Currency British pound is one of the strongest currencies in the world; one euro was equivalent to about 1.5, ie $ 1.85. The pound is divided into 100 subunits called pence. It is available on the market in coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pence, 1 and 2 and in notes 5, 10, 20 and 50. London is divided into six sectors, which is calculated according to transportation charges. Zone 1 includes downtown and is fully covered both in surface and underground. Traveling by bus in this area is 1. For a road in other areas, is paying 0.70. It’s also good to know that the fine for those without improper tickets or identity card is 10.
The British capital is more practical in the subway (aka The Tube). If you stay longer in London, would be better to buy a ticket (Travelcard) for lines available both surface and underground ones. Its price varies depending on the number of days and covered areas, as follows: 5.30 to 10.50 – for a day, from 16.20 to 36.90 – for a week. Ultimate symbol of London and the British monarchy, Buckingham Palace became a royal residence not only until 1837, when Queen Victoria moved here from Kensington Palace. Situated on the famous promenade end of the Mall, the building is now home and the main activity of the entire family of Windsor. Who has the luck to get in his face shortly before 11:30, perhaps can watch a great show: changing of the guard.
Troopers with red tunics and bearskin hats of are renowned for their sobriety. Recently, the feathered caps were replaced with synthetic for environmental reasons. Buckingham Palace festivities include 19 rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 bathrooms and 78 offices. Monarchs’ apartments are located in the north wing, and between August and early October, when the royal family leave the building, the rooms are open to the public festivities.11