Travel Guides: India
India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia.
India is the 7th in the hierarchy of countries by area, in second place by number of inhabitants and democratic state with most people. India has a coastline length of 7,000 km and borders Pakistan to the west, Nepal, China and Bhutan to the north-east and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia. Valley home of the Hindu civilization, the center of important trade routes and vast empires, India has played a major role in human history. Brahmanism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism originated in India, while Islam and Christianity enjoy a rich tradition here. Colonized as part of the British Empire in the nineteenth century, India gained independence in 1947 as a unified nation after a sustained effort made in this direction.
Population, flora and fauna, the geographical aspect and the climate system are among the most diverse in the world. India is also home of pepper. Peninsular India is a plateau consisting of an old plateau, Deccan which is lined semi-desert. Another important plateau is the Plateau Thar (Desert). Also in India are the Himalaya Mountains (8,000 meters). Mainland India is below the Himalayan system. A trip to India is a real assault on all senses. You will travel through the dusty heat, cold snow in the north, you pass through narrow streets full of bicycles, rickshaw, motorcycles, trucks and of course sacred cows – the national symbol. The colorful ant continues with streets and markets: you will walk among tourists of all nations, holy men – yogis, businessmen, snake charmers, children, beggars, and monkeys.
Some of the main sights will reveal to the eye: Taj Mahal, the Ganges and the Himalayas. India with its rich variety seems that a number of countries gathered on the same territory. Travel to different regions will be exposed to major changes in terms of cuisine, dress, language, religion, customs and traditions. With over one billion inhabitants, India is the second largest country in the world population being second only to China. India is a country of contradictions. The population is divided into castes and belonging to one of them is very strict and rigid. Religious feeling is very present in a majority of the inhabitants. Climate: It is predominantly tropical monsoon. The hydrographic network is influenced by the three major units of relief and climate. The main rivers are the Ganges and its tributary and the Brahmaputra.
Both spring in the Himalayas, flows into the Bay of Bengal by a huge common delta. They have high flow rates, are navigable and promote irrigation. Dekkan Plateau rivers are short (the longest being Godavari that not exceed 1500 km) and flow variables. Industry is highly diversified and includes both heavy industry and manufacture of high technology products. The main industrial region is located in the eastern parte, with deposits of coal, iron ore and various industrial centers; here is the industrial and urban center of Calcutta. Other industrial concentrations are located at Mumbai, Bangalore, Madras and Delhi.
Globally, India is a leading producer of coal, iron ore, bauxite, diamonds and salt. It is increasing production of oil and natural gas. Manufacturing places India among the eleven countries of the world of production value. Traditional industries still predominate: textiles (especially cotton processing, the world No. 2) and food (it is the world’s largest producer of sugar and butter). It has a strong engineering industry, which produces a wide range: from tractors, locomotives and ships to artificial satellites, India is one of the few countries that have developed cosmic industry. India has a strong film industry. It ranks 2nd in the world in the field after the US; the city of Mumbai is called the “Indian Hollywood”.
Agriculture is highly efficient, being the main occupation of the population. With some very good positions in agricultural products, such as it wheat, rice and sugar (two at each place in the world), cotton (No. 3), iron ore and soybean (# 5). In the production of tea, it takes a place on the globe. It has also the largest dairy herd. The vegetation reflects the natural setting of great relief and diversity of altitude rainfall: dense tropical forest, especially on the Malabar Coast (western Indian peninsula) and in the north-east (Assam); coniferous forest (the Himalayas); savanna (especially in the Ganges Plain); steppe with brambles (especially in Plateau Dekkan); desert vegetation (desert Thoar).
Fauna is varied. The population is very high, about 1 billion inhabitants, the density is high (300 inhabitants per square km). India’s present population is composed of two main groups: Dravidian populations in south and north Indo-European (who came here 3500 years ago). In India, the official languages are English and Hindi, but they speak 200 other languages. Predominant is the Hindu religion (84% of the population), followed by Islam. Other religions are Jainism, Sikhism (about 25 million of the total population of India), Christianity (about 24 million of the total population of India). India is a mystical land, with seductive images.
Hinduism is reflected in religious rituals and daily life of residents. Imagination causes in India, hosting a sixth of world population. Its history goes back in time at least until 2500 BC, when the first known civilization settled along the Indus River. International Indian Congress was formed in 1885, but has progressed very little to independence, Mahatma Gandhi until it started cooperation with the British policy. A rich history left behind many palaces, temples and monuments. The most frequently visited part of India is the Golden Triangle. Unfairly ostracized, majestic cities Mumbai and Kolkata have a colorful charm, while the holy city Varnasi or temples of Tamil Nadu are worthy of pilgrimage locations. For those who seek worldly pleasures, try the palm beaches of Goa. For moments of solitude, in India there are mountains and hills, from the heights of the Himalayas to lakes and springs.11