Travel Guides: Luxembourg
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a state in Europe which is part of the Benelux countries and the European Union.
Luxembourg owes its existence to a mixture of luck and diplomacy that saved the country from merging into the neighboring territories. You might be tempted to think that a small country, whose name exceeds the boundaries of the territory, even on a big map, is simple, but it’s not like that. Residents come from different cultures so that even now is trying to unravel after the Germanic tribes defeated the Romans on the Rhine defenses in 406. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is composed of two distinct regions that make up a landscape of great beauty.
Ardennes forest area in the north is part of a chain of hills crossed by narrow rivers, such as Our and Sure. South of the Ardennes is the rich farm land of the Bon Pays, a plateau crossed by narrow valleys of the Moselle River, which has famous vineyards on the banks. Both regions are dotted with picturesque villages, castles and holiday homes. Luxembourg-Ville capital is divided into the historic center, which contains the fortress towers and cobbled streets, and the modern Plateau du Kirchberg, a renowned international financial center. Other major cities are Echternach and Vianden. You can visit all the attractions in the country in day trips from the capital or the neighboring town Trier.
Main attractions: Discover the charming historic city of Luxembourg-Ville. Visit the fortress towers and winding cobbled streets. Go to the underground tunnels, called pillboxes train and walk through the valley of Petrusse. See the changing of the guard at the Palais Grand Ducal, official residence of the Grand Duke. Other attractions include Guillaume Place (also called Knuedler) and the market which is held here twice a week and the seventeenth-century Notre Dame Cathedral. Enlighten in many galleries and museums in the capital. Highlights include the National Museum of Natural History, National Museum of History and Art Museum and the City of Luxembourg Museum.
The modern District Plateau du Kirchberg is a thriving financial center, with many European institutions and the largest cinema complex and shopping mall in Luxembourg. Further east in the town of Echternach, you cede religious to processions, dancing, taking place every year at Pentecostals. The seventeenth century Benedictine monastery now houses a museum. Also visit the Basilica of St. Willibrord City Hall from the fifteenth century. In Vianden admire the magnificent castle built between XI and XIV centuries. The castle offers a panoramic view of the city from 450 m high. You can get there with a lift. You can also visit a nearby castle, at the Bourscheid.
In the medieval town Clervaux you can visit the from the XII century, which now houses the government offices and tourist attractions, a small museum about the Ardennes offensive of 1944-1945 and a collection of artistic documentary photography, Family of the Man by Edward Steichen. Scour the Mullerthal region, little Switzerland of Luxembourg – dense forests, crystal clear springs and spectacular sandstone formations, make up one of the most popular hiking areas. The main resorts are Beaufort and Larochette, both with a castle on a hilltop. Explore the beauty and tranquility of the Ardennes region, which locals call Eisleck. The area consists of forested plateaus, hills and green valleys. Head for the small town of Esch-sur-Sure, a famous resort surrounded by the Sure River.
Try some water sports – in the Sure Naton Park is the country’s drinking water reservoir and a dam that creates a beautiful lake. Take a wine tasting tour in the southeast. Moselle River flows through the country’s main wine-growing area. River cruises are organized. Pamper yourself with spa treatments and other leisure facilities in the resort town of Mondorf-les-Bains. Visit the small town of Schengen, where the river Moselle marks the meeting of Luxembourg, France and Germany, a place made famous by the Schengen Treaty that was signed here in 1995. Gastronomy: Luxembourg cuisine combines the essence of Germany with the Franco-Belgian suppleness. Trout, pike and lobsters are cooked excellent; the same are the cookies.
Restaurants are very similar to the rest of Europe. Moselle wines resemble those on the Rhine, but French wines are drier than fruity. Another specialty is beer, a real national industry. Traditional dishes are Carre de porc afume (smoked pork with beans and cabbage), Cochon de lait en gele (milk pig gelatin), Jambon d’Ardennes (famous smoked Ardennes ham) and sufle omelet with kirsch, a kind of cherry. Customs and rules of conduct are similar to those in other Western countries. Try to show respect for language and learn a few words. Local time is GMT +1.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a landlocked country in Europe as part of the Benelux countries, with Belgium and the Netherlands and the European Union. Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe. In the western province it is bordering Belgium, which has an area almost twice that of the country and eastern border is formed by the rivers Mosel, Sauer and Our. The country has the capital at Luxembourg, which is the country’s largest city and is divided into three districts, 12 cantons and 118 communes in which 12 have city status. Luxembourg City hosts important institutions such as: the European Court of Justice, European Court of Audit and the European Investment Bank.
This is one of three EU capitals and is located at the confluence of rivers Alzette and Petrus. The city is an important administrative and banking center. In 1994, the historic old town and fortifications of Luxembourg were included on UNESCO’s world heritage list. The Old Town houses: Arms Market, a market dominated by animated Municipal Palace, City Hall Square where is the statue of Wilhelm II of Holland, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Plateau Holy Spirit with the National Solidarity Monument, Bock, with the rock on which was built the first castle of the duchy, fortifications, James Tower, Statue of Goethe and the Corniche Council building located on the old fortifications.
Notre Dame is an impressive Gothic building constructed between 1613 and 1621 which houses the royal family tomb and a sarcophagus of John the Blind, which can be visited only with approval. National Museum of Art and History is located in the oldest part of the town and contains archaeological exhibits, historical and ethnographic. Bentinek-Thyssen Collection holds works of art from the fifteenth-eighteenth century, which belonged to the famous Rembrandt, Rubens and van Dyck. The oldest part of the Grand Duchy Palace was built in 1572, this building being a beauty. Near it has the headquarters the building of the Chamber of Deputies.
A very popular destination is Vianden, situated on both banks of the Our River, near the border with Germany. The feudal castle was built on the rocks in IX century and was the residence of the counts of Vianden. Today it houses a history museum, exhibits and links to the royal families of Europe until the Middle Ages. Trinitri Church is a Gothic building dating from 1248 and has an adjacent monastery. Museum of Art is located in a former mansion and owns a collection of over 500 dolls and shows life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Here is the house where lived during his exile Victor Hugo, a place where there are exposed various collections of souvenirs collected by him during his life, in different places.
Berdorf is one of the most popular tourist areas in Luxembourg. It is situated on a plateau overlooking the river valleys Ernz Black, Aesbach and Sure. Rocky Mountains offer an unforgettable view; there are many ravines among hiking trails which are very well furnished. The forest is a nature reserve and the animals and their habitat are protected throughout. Rock climbers here are known around the world, but you need a climbing permit. This is granted to all persons, without restriction. An important city in the region is Echternach, Little Switzerland, famous because of sandstone rock formations, the numerous streams that go through because of dense forests and dance processions, unique in the world for centuries and which attract many tourists from around the world.
The main attractions are: The Monastery of St. Wilibrord, built by a Northumbrian monk who keeps the tradition of dancing from the first Tuesday after Whit Sunday, Town Square, Roman Villa, Pavilion of Louis XV, the Monastery and the Museum of Prehistory. For lovers of cycling there are routes until Diekirch, Luxembourg and Vlanden. Capital: Luxembourg. Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy – Chamber of Deputies with 60 seats elected by popular vote every five years. Mountains: The landscape is mostly low and hilly, and the northern part of the Ardennes Mountains of hills and low mountains. The highest peak: Buurgplaatz 559 m.
Sea: It is landlocked. Climate: Continental with mild winters and cool summers. Area: 2.586 km². Neighborhood: Belgium, France, Germany. Main Cities: Luxembourg, Wiltz, Diekrich, Mertert, Petange, Esch, Budelange. Administrative Divisions: 3 districts, 12 cantons and 118 communes; 12 communes have city status. Time Zone: GMT+1. Country code (phone): 352. Radio emission: AM 2, FM 9, ultra 2. Medieval Territory: History of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg began with the Castle construction in 963. In 1473 there was a ruling family crisis having no legitimate inheritance to the throne. Belgian Revolution of 1830-1839 has halved in Luxembourg so the western, francophone pure, was transferred to Belgium.
Modern Politics: In 1839 Luxembourg was ousted to the German Confederation. Luxembourg was invaded and occupied by Germany during the First and Second World War. During the World War II Luxembourg abandoned neutrality and joined the Allies against Germany. In 1946 it became a founder of NATO and the UN. Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (now European Union) and in 1999 adopted the euro. Independence: Obtained in 1839 from Netherlands. Organization: Tourism in Luxembourg is based on extensive history of the kingdoms of the royal town where you can visit the Luxembourg Museums, very fancy restaurants, taxis, luxurious palaces, castles, etc.
What to see: Luxembourg City, Moselle Valley, famous for fine wine tasting, Chateau de Bourscheid, a castle built 1,000 years ago situated on a high rock being the most beautiful castle in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City History Museum and the town of Remich. When to go: Spring is perfect season when start visiting Luxembourg different festivals. Between late spring and early autumn is also a good time for many activities if you do not mind the rain or the number of tourists which is increased. Winter is not as extreme as in the neighbor countries. Events: June 23 National Day, the birthday of Duchess Charlotte.
Estimated population: 480222 people. Population density: 185.7 persons / km². Population distribution: 92% Urban / Rural 8%. Birth rate: 11.84 per 1,000 people. Death rate: 8.42 per 1,000. Average Age: 38.9 years. Education Rates: 100% – People who know how to read and write (more than 15 years). Unemployment rate: 4.1%. Ethnic Groups: Celtic (a mix of French and German), Portuguese, Italians, Slavs (from Montenegro and Albania) and European (workers, tourists or residents). Emigrants: 8.64 persons/1000 people. Language: Luxembourg language (national language), German and French. Religion: Roman Catholic 87%, Others (Protestant, Muslim, Hebrew) 13%.
Transport: train, plane, subway, boat / ferry. Shipping routes: Moselle river 37 km. Highways / Roads: 5.227 km. Railways: 275 km. Airports: 2. Ports: 1. Coin: Euro. Gross Domestic Product: $ 33.84 billion (total). Minimum Wage: 1570 euro. Average salary: 5000. Industries: banking, iron, steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, chemicals, rubber, glass, tourism, aluminum. Agriculture Products: wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, dairy. Money Advice: 18-250 euro for hotel accommodation, restaurant meals 4-40 euros.
Personalities: Joseph Kutter (1894-1941) – He introduced modern painting in Luxembourg. He painted “Red House”, “The Champion”, “Snow Scene”, “Wood Horse”. Robert Schuman (1886-1963) – Together with Jean Monnet is called The Fathers of Europe; he proposed what is now the European Union. Saint Willibrord (658-739) – the only saint of Luxembourg, built a monastery at Echternach and until today is kept the “Dancing Procession”, a sort of carnival in his memory. Marc Girardelli – performance skier who won the award five times at the World Cup and won the silver medal at the Olympics. Henri Tudor – he invented the “Tudor battery”, the world’s first battery that works based on lead.
Independence Day: 11 May 1867. Internet domain: .lu. Telephone: +352. Geographic location: The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a country in Europe which is part of the Benelux countries (Belgium and the Netherlands-with-the Netherlands) and the European Union. Neighborhood: It is bordered by Germany, east by France, south, north and west by Belgium. Relief: Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It has an area of about 2.586 km². In the west it borders the Belgian province of Luxembourg, which is almost double the area of the country. Northern part of the Ardennes Mountains is composed of hills and low mountains, the highest point being Buurgplaatz, 559 m. Also the rest of the country is hilly.
Luxembourg’s eastern border is formed by the river Mosel (Moselle), Sauer (Sûre) and the Our. Climate: Luxembourg is part of the Western European continental climatic region and has a temperate climate without extremes. Winters are mild, summers are cool and there are heavy rains. Weather is different to some extent between the northern and southern regions. In the north, there is considerable influence of the Atlantic system; the frequent depressions give rise to unstable weather conditions. This gives rise to cloudier and drizzle and rain in winter. Rain sometimes reaches 1.2 m per year in some areas. In summer, excessive heat is scarce and temperatures drop at night. Low temperatures and humidity give rise to what people call an invigorating climate.
In the south, although the rainfall is not much lower – about 32 inches – and the winters are more pleasant, the main difference lies in the higher summer temperatures, especially in the Valley of the Mosella. Crops, particularly vines have good conditions here. With an average annual temperature of 10 ° C, the sunniest months are from May to August. Luxembourg has a very interesting history and a rich history that binds to the legendary name of Dracula of Walachia, history that stretches from Roman times, of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the occupation of the Spanish times and until the French Revolution. Luxembourg Old City is part of UNESCO World Heritage List (Old Quarter and the Citadel fortifications). In 2007, Luxembourg and Greater Region, with the city of Sibiu in Romania were the chosen European Cultural Capitals. Important sights are the Cathedral of Notre Dame and City Hall. In the town are a university and the Radio of Luxembourg. Luxembourg City also hosts various European institutions: European Court of Justice, European Court of Auditors and European Investment Bank.
Museums: Most museums are located in Luxembourg City, the capital. National Museum of History and Art, Luxembourg City History Museum, Museum of Modern Art of the Grand Duchy, the Museum of Military History in Diekirch, known to represent the Battle of Bulge.
Conditions of entry and residence regime: Citizens in EU do not need a visa to enter the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has allowed entry with the passport or identity card valid at least six months from the date of entry into Luxembourg. To check the latest regulations on the entry conditions laid down by national legislation it is recommended consulting official data provided by the Luxembourg authorities. Currently, access to employment from some states in the labor market in Luxembourg is restricted. It was decided instead to introduce a simplified procedure for issuing work permits in areas of: agriculture, viticulture, restaurant services, hotel services, some social services, and financial sector (in the case of non existing applications).
The procedure for obtaining a work permit in Luxembourg is: declaration by the prospective employer that has a vacancy in Employment Administration. In the event that it is unable to propose a suitable person for the job, the employer shall provide a statement countersigned by the latter commitment to the job, equivalent to an application for a work permit, accompanied by a copy of identity document. The work permit is granted by the Ministry of Immigration, following the opinion formulated by a special commission. It is the intermediary between employers, workers and the Ministry of Immigration.
Work permits are of 4 types: A (one year), B (four years), C (time limit) and D (during the stage). Duration of procedure is on average 6-8 weeks. Terrorist Threats: Terrorism is a global phenomenon and Luxembourg can not therefore be excluded from the face of this threat. Luxembourg has not suffered terrorist attacks on national territory. It is always recommend that you watch ads and recommendations made by the Luxembourg authorities and regularly visit the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Embassies in Luxembourg. Safety and crime: Luxembourg is a country with a very low level of crime.
Minor offenses such as pick-pocketing, deception or theft of cars can occur in crowded areas (stations, stations, parking lots, shopping centers, gas stations or motorway service areas). General recommendations: Store documents in safe and personal values, money travel tickets, credit cards and do not expose them clearly on you or in cars; Cars must be locked and secured with alarm systems; If traveling by bus or train, keep out for your luggage throughout the journey. At the exit from the cities, especially in crowded areas, leave personal documents in the hotel and keep only one copy of identity documents (passport, residence permit).
In the event of incidents affecting the safety of persons or property, you should contact the local police and the nearest consular office. In case of serious incidents (accidents, robberies), which requires immediate action by the Luxembourg authorities you should call the following emergency numbers: 112 – Emergency Service; 113 – Police. If you accidentally call 112, do not hang up! Otherwise, the police send a car where you are, to see if everything is okay. Medical System: Medical insurance is compulsory in Luxembourg. It is strongly recommend that you insure health care or to obtain a European Health Card before leaving on a trip.
If you become ill or have an accident during a temporary stay in an EU Member State, E112 form or your European Health Insurance will give you access to necessary medical care. This card will allow you to receive necessary healthcare during a temporary stay in any EU country. It’s good for supplementary medical insurance to be valid in all countries. On the basis of such insurance is optional, you have access to emergency services from both public health and the private (depending on the type of insurance policy). At the conclusion of such a security check details of insurance company partners in the country of destination and transit.
It is recommended that you have, before departure, travel insurance. This is valid in all countries and can cover the basic risks (illness, accident, dental emergencies, repatriation health or death) to all travel risks, including loss / theft / damage to baggage, cancellation of leave for abroad, airline bankruptcy, etc.. Life insurance has proved beneficial to the families of those killed in accidents or due to illness. In the European Union you do not need special vaccinations. Conditions of road traffic: Movement of vehicles: In Luxembourg, the movement of vehicles is carried out on the right side of the road.
Violations of the Luxembourg law on driving on public roads shall be punished by a fine of 25 to 500 euros. Driving under the influence of alcohol can lead to punishment of imprisonment from 8 days to two years and fines of 251 euros to 5,000 euros. Roads: the general condition of roads and infrastructure is very good. Speed limits allowed: 1.20 km / h in residential areas and pedestrian, 50 km / h in towns, 90 km / h on national roads, 130 km / h on motorways, 90 km / hour in the tunnel. Parking: Parking is a particular problem in large cities.
Street parking is generally paid and is frequently for control and warning, that the amendment of persons whose vehicles are parked illegally. In areas that are not automatic payment of parking charges, it is better to install one hour parking on board, to mark the start time of parking, taking into account that, in general, the rule is that it can stand up to those who do not live in the more than 2 hours. Anti-radar devices and radar detection: There are prohibited the sale, possession, use, and advertising radar detection devices, and the trap. These facts represent a contravention.
The penalty is: fine with a value between 250 and 5000 Euro; license suspension for at least 60 days; confiscation of the detector or radar device. Driving license: Valid driving permit issued in EU is recognized in Luxembourg. Information on traffic accident cases: In case of accident fill in with the other party, the standard form provided by local insurance companies, on the accident. Write down the particulars of the other vehicle involved in the accident and its insurance company. If in the accident someone is injured, call the local police, after having given first aid. Ask your partner to support the insurance company in the country included in the Green Paper.
Keep the accounts to return the country to present to the insurance company. If an accident resulting in serious damage to the vehicle or injury or death, vehicle movement is prohibited until the police arrived on the scene to find facts and draw up a report. This document is essential to establish guilt and is required to obtain a copy from the police officer. Useful numbers for information or conduct traffic accident: Emergency Service – 112; Police – 113. Using credit cards: In Luxembourg are accepted all credit cards, European and North American, and their use is very common. They are also accepted travelers checks.
There are no checks at internal borders among the signatory states of the Schengen Agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Hungary, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland (the latter three are not EU members). For reasons of public order, public health or national security, internal EU border controls may be placed for limited periods. Quantitative limits for the introduction of certain products are: cigarettes: 200 pieces, 1 liter of alcoholic beverages, perfume 50 ml or 250 ml eau de toilette.
Drug regime: This excludes both incoming and outgoing drugs of any type and doping substances. Do not take your medicines but the quantities strictly necessary. It is recommended you have your prescription for drugs that go beyond the usual. Antibiotics should not be issued, only on prescription. Conditions for pets: For the EU, you need a passport for your pet. This document can be obtained from the veterinarian and must contain information on rabies vaccination. The animal must be identified by an electronic microchip. By July 2011, is also acceptable, a clearly readable tattoo.
Luxembourg was part of Charlemagne’s empire and became an independent state in 963, when Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, became sovereign Lucilinburhuc (Little Forest). In 1060, Conrad, a descendant of Sigfried took the title of Count of Luxembourg. From the fifteenth century until the eighteenth century, Spain, France and Austria held the duchy. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was transformed and given the Dutch king William I. In 1839, by the Treaty of London gave the west of the country to Belgium. The east side has continued to be part of the Netherlands and is a member of the German Confederation. It became an autonomous territory in 1848 and neutral territory of the decision of the London Conference of 1867.
German troops occupied the duchy in the two world wars, being liberated by the Allies in 1944. Luxembourg joined NATO in 1949, the Benelux Economic Union in 1948 and the European Community in 1957. In 1961, Prince Jean, son and heir of Grand Duke Charlotte, became head of state, on behalf of his mother. She abdicated in 1964 and his son became grand duke. Parliament approved the Maastricht Agreement, the economic forecasting unit of the European Union in July 1992. Luxembourg has a parliamentary system of government with a constitutional monarchy. Under the 1868 constitution, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke or Grand Duchess and the cabinet, consisting of a prime minister and several ministers.
Grand Duke has the power to dissolve parliament and form another. Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, directly elected for terms of five years. A second body, the Conseil d’Etat (State Council), composed of 21 citizens appointed by the lead, has an advisory role for the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of laws. The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals, two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch) and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an administrative court, an Administrative Court and Constitutional Court, all in the city of Luxembourg.
Land use: Arable land: 24%; permanent crops: 1%; Permanent pastures: 20%; Forests: 21%; Other: 34%. Irrigated land: 10 sq km (including Belgium) (1993 estimate). Current environmental issues: air and water pollution in urban areas. International environmental treaties: Issuer: Air Pollution – Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution – Sulfur 85, Air pollution – Sulfur 94, Air Pollution – Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, climate change, desertification, endangered species, hazardous wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, fens. Signed but not ratified: Air pollution – persistent organic pollutants, climate change – Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification, and Law of the Sea.
Despite its small size, Luxembourg has a varied layout, with two main characteristics. The northern part of the country is composed of one part of the Ardennes plateau, where mountain heights rang from 460 to 610 m. The rest of the country consists of a landscape of hills with broad valleys. The capital, Luxembourg City, is located in the south of the country. The most important form of relief, the high plateau of the Ardennes in the north, was formed millions of years ago. The highest point, reaches a height of 559 m. Known as Oesling, Ardennes region covers 842 square kilometers, almost 32% of the entire country. The terrain predominates because erosion of the rivers has created a varied landscape over time, less high mountain covered with dense vegetation, sometimes with considerable variations in altitude.
These differences in relief, with expanses of water mixed with forests, fields and pastures are the main features that make the landscape so special. Typically this area is highly fertile soil and poor drainage which gives rise to numerous rabies once operated. These factors, combined with heavy rain and frost have made the environment to be inhospitable for the first inhabitants. Even today, living conditions in such an environment are not very favorable. However, about 7,800 people live in forests, small farms and environmental services. Because the soil is so difficult to cultivate, much of the land is used for grazing. Ardennes region includes the National Park Upper Sure, an important conservation area.
In the south of the Sûre River, the region is known as Gutland. It covers just over two thirds of the country. The land rises and falls smoothly with an average height of 213 m. The main activity is agriculture, Gutland term coming from the fertile soil and the hot and dry summers in this part of the Duchy, compared with Oesling region. Consequently, they are growing fruit and vegetables in large quantities, such as strawberries, apples, plums and cherries. Erosion by rivers in this area has created deep narrow valleys and caves, giving rise to spectacular scenery.
In the extreme south of the country is the land of red rocks – a reference to mineral deposits that are there. Rich in iron since the Roman times, if not before, the district is a region of mining and heavy industry that spans more than 20 km. Tall chimneys of the iron and steel plants are symbols typical of the industrial south. To the east is where the Mosel Valley grape growers are. Many villages are located in deep valleys and around vineyards along the rivers. Each village has at least one wine cava. Also in the east lies “Little Switzerland”, characterized by narrow valleys and ravines wooded with unusual rock formations.
Luxembourg has a few minor rivers: Eisch, Alzette, and Petrus, but mainly Mosel River with its tributaries – Our and Sure. Together, their courses serve as the border between Luxembourg and Germany. Along the shores are many medieval castles of the country. Mosel flows in north-eastern France and flows north through Luxembourg about 30.6 km to the Rhine, which confluences at Koblenz, Germany. Moselle is 514 km long and is navigable, because of sanitation, on 64 km. Green slopes covered with vineyards, lie on both sides of the river.
Springing up in Belgium, Sûre River flows 172 km to the east by Luxembourg to spill into the river Mosel. Its winding course runs through Luxembourg from east to west. Our River, along the northeastern border, is a tributary of Sûre. Its valley is surrounded by natural landscapes. Haute-Sûre Lake is the largest expanse of water in the Grand Duchy. Surrounded by lush vegetation and tranquil fountains, the lake is a center for aquatic sports: canoeing, kayaking. Such outdoor activities, which make it an attraction for tourists, led to the development of local manufacturing industries. Esch-sur-Sûre city is at one end of the lake. Immediately upstream of it, the river forms a hydroelectric reservoir extended about 10 km up the valley. Sûre Upper Dam was built in the ’60s to meet the demand for drinking water.
Flora of Luxembourg is characterized by placing the country on the border between the Atlantic-European climate zones and Central European. In the north, we meet many beeches and oaks. Oaks can grow up to 30-45 meters with a diameter of 1.2 to 2.4 m. They give large amounts of hardwood. Along the riverbanks, we meet the common alder and willow species. Alder wood is pale yellow to reddish brown, fine texture and durable even under water. It is important timber joinery primarily due to its resistance to disease. Willows may reach a height of 20 m and are valuable for ornamental purposes. Narrow valleys, deep in the north are a habitat for rare plants and animals, particularly otter, a protected species. In the southern industrial, including quarries and abandoned mines, nature has entitled and there are flowers everywhere.
Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It has an area of about 2.586 km². In the west it borders the Belgian province which (4443 km ²) is almost double the area of the country. Northern part of the Ardennes Mountains is composed of hills and low mountains, the highest point being Buurgplaatz, 559 m. Also the rest of the country is hilly. Luxembourg’s eastern border is formed by the rivers Moselle, Sauer and Our. Oak forests and beech represents 55% of the territory. Temperate climate is transitional between the oceans and semi-continental. Maximum altitude is only 300 m in Gutland / Bon Pays.
Economy: Stable economy, strong of Luxembourg, has moderate growth, low inflation and low unemployment. Industry, dominated by the steel industry, has become increasingly diverse, and includes chemicals, rubber and other products. In recent decades, it increased the financial sector which helped the offset of the decline in steel. Services, especially those relating to banks, have an increasingly important segment of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family farms. Luxembourg has especially trade and financial links with Belgium and the Netherlands, and as a member of the EU, enjoys the benefits of the European free market. Luxembourg has the highest GDP per capita in the world (62 700 USD in 2005).
Unemployment was 4.4% of the workforce in July 2005. In 2009, foreign direct investment in Luxembourg was 27.2 billion US dollars. However, Luxembourg has invested nearly $ 15 billion in other countries. With a population of 439,539, according to 2001 census and an estimated population (in 2005) to be approximately 465,000, Luxembourg is ranked 168 in the world. In Luxembourg are recognized and spoken three languages, French, German and Luxembourg language, similar to German. Besides it’s one of the three official languages, Luxembourg language is the national language of the Grand Duchy.
Although a secular state, 87% of Luxembourg’s population declare themselves as Roman Catholic Christians, the rest are mainly Protestant, Hebrew and Muslim. 37% of the population consists of immigrants. UNESCO World Heritage List included the following objectives: The old historic town and fortifications of Luxembourg (1994); Christian Park statue created by Veres (2001). The recorded history of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg begins with the construction of Luxembourg Castle in 963. Around this fort a town gradually developed, which became the center of a small but important state. The County of Luxembourg is raised to the rank of Duchy in 1354. In 1437 there was a crisis, regarding the family heir to the throne.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg’s fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by those who occupied it, among others, the Bourbons, the Habsburgs, the Hohenzollerns and the French. Even after Napoleon‘s defeat in 1815, when the Congress of Vienna gave formal autonomy to Luxembourg, the country has become the subject of a dispute between Prussia and the Netherlands. Belgian Revolution of 1830-1839 has halved in Luxembourg, where the west of the country, mostly French, was transferred to Belgium. Luxembourg’s independence was then confirmed in 1839, but was only formally ratified in 1867, after the Luxembourg Crisis nearly led to war between Prussia and France. In the same year 1839, Luxembourg joined the German Confederation.
The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State of Luxembourg, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg until 1890. Upon the death of William III, the Dutch throne passed to his daughter, Wilhelmina, and Luxembourg (on the throne could not stand that women was given to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg. Luxembourg was invaded and occupied by the German Empire during the First World War and Nazi Germany during the Second World War. In 1942, Luxembourg was formally annexed by the Third Reich. During the World War II, Luxembourg abandoned its policy of neutrality and joins the Allies in fighting Germany. Its government in exile in London formed a small group of volunteers who have participated in the Normandy invasion.
It became a founding member of NATO and the UN in 1946. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 joined the countries that have adopted the single currency. Several European organizations have their headquarters in Luxembourg.11