Travel Guides: Montenegro
Montenegro is a state in southern Europe. It has a population of 621,000 inhabitants.
The capital of the country is Podgorica. The official language is Serbian, and in addition to it the local government uses, where appropriate, the Albanian language. State holiday is 13 July, the day when the Congress of Berlin, in 1878, confirmed the independence of the Principality of Montenegro. Following the referendum of 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June 2006. Montenegro is one of Europe’s tourist treasures. The country has become the newest sovereign state in 2006, when its residents voted for independence. In this great country you have the opportunity in a single day to enjoy a coffee on the beaches of the Budva Riviera, to have lunch while listening to the trills of birds on the lake Sadar and diner at a bonfire on the slopes of Mount Durmitor.
This country’s turbulent history has left behind many historical monuments throughout. The blue sea with endless beaches, clear rivers and mountain massifs, together with the spirit of bygone times, Montenegro is the ideal destination for a vacation. The country has many sunny days in the summer and a lot of snow in the winter, so you can spend your vacation here in all season. Montenegro towns are rich in architecture, dating from different periods. Due to the many traditional festivals and events, visitors have the opportunity to learn more about the places and customs. In recent years, Montenegro has entered in step with modernity and offers facilities for extreme sports.
Main attractions: Visit the bustling port of Kotor and the picturesque historic center, with Venetian architecture, the seventeenth-century clock tower, the cathedral St Tiphun from the XII century, the naval museum and many other attractions. Taste the olive oil made from the oldest olive tree in the world, located in Bar, a cultural center and a popular destination port on the Adriatic coast. Explore Herceg Novi, a town 700 years old, where is located the Baroque monastery Savina. Nearby is the town of Herceg Novi and Topla Riviera, where was educated at the famous poet and priest Petar II Petrovic Njegos.
Stroll through Ulcinj, one of the oldest cities on the Adriatic coast. The main tourist attractions include the mosque tower Balsa and Renaissance church, which now houses the Museum of the City. Another attraction is the beach Velika Plaza, with a length of 12 km. Take a trip to Lovcen Massif where is the Mausoleum of Njegos. Admire the Ostrog monastery from the XVII century, which was built on a vertical cliff on the road between Danilovgrad and Niksic. You can do hiking, biking, rafting, gliding in the Durmitor National Park, located on the UNESCO World Heritage list, because of the glacial landscapes, high peaks, dense pine forests and among the deepest gorges in Europe.
Look at the birds of the Lake Scadar, on the Zetsko-Skadarska Valley. There are about 270 species of birds, a complex of 20 monasteries and numerous islands. Relax on the beaches of the Riviera Ulcinjska, which stretches on 13 km. Explore Lake Biogradska and Primary Forest National Park, one of the last three jungles in Europe, which lies between the rivers Lim and Tara. In the Bjelasica Mountains you can see eagles. Stroll through the botanical garden of Kolasin, situated in the wilderness of the mountains Bjelasica, Sinjajevina, Vucje and Kljuca, with many rare plants.
Restaurants in Montenegro are not intended to compete with Western luxury restaurants, but offer a welcoming atmosphere and traditional food. Specialties that do not have to miss is roasted lamb meat, pivski kajmak (Piva a dairy cream), fish soup, fish (carp, mullet) fried accompanied by a glass of wine Krstac or Vranac. After the main course, there will be made desserts with cheese, peaches and cantaloupe. Taste some Niksicko beer, and grape brandy that goes with smoked ham, goat cheese and tomatoes.
Usually it is not permitted the access in shorts in public buildings, the Serbian Orthodox monasteries and try to wear modest clothes. Drunkenness is considered shameful and of bad taste in Montenegro. You can drink alcohol as you want, as long as you do not get drunk. Local time is GMT+1. Form of government: Republic. Capital: Podgorica. Official Language: Montenegrin. Area: 13,812 km². Currency: EUR. Location: It is a state in south-eastern Europe. Population: The official language is Serbian, and in addition the local government uses the Albanian language. Relief: Montenegro includes high peaks along its borders with Serbia and Albania, a karsts region and a narrow coastal plain from 1 to 6 km wide. In the north, the plain disappears totally, and Mountain Orjen and Lovćen plunge abruptly into the Gulf of Kotor.
The vast karsts region of Montenegro is about 1,000 m altitude, but in some parts it is exceeding 2,000 meters, such as in the Orjen Mountain (1894 m), the highest massif of limestone mountain ranges located along the coast. Zeta River valley, with an altitude of 500 m is the lowest segment. Montenegro Mountains exceed altitudes, on average, 2,000 feet. Mountain chains of the country were among the most eroded by glaciers in the entire Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.
Montenegro translates Black Mountain and is located in southeastern Europe. Its capital is Podgorica and the official language is Serbian. Montenegro boasts the largest canyon in Europe, River Country, second only to Grand Canyon in the USA, with the ancient forests from Biogradska Gora National Park and at the Boka Kotorska fjord. Podgorica is located at 44 m above sea level, 100 km from the Mediterranean coast and winter tourist center Bjelasica. The city is a mixture of architectural styles. From the Turks remained the Old Town, two mosques, the Clock Tower and the bridge. The Urban Center is growing and has moved the other side of the river Ribnica. Another tourist attraction in the town is St. George’s Church, built in the X century, on the hill Gorica.
Bar is the main port of the country, bordering the Adriatic Sea, very clean and lots of green spaces. Modern buildings and wide boulevards are being built almost entirely after the Second World War. Historical and cultural heritage of the city is the fortress Haj Nehaj, a XV century fortress and the remains of the castle of King Nikola. Skadar Lake is one of the largest habitats of birds. Other sights are: Old Town, the marina, the olive, with a life of more than 2000 years, churches and monasteries. Vode Dobre, Sutomore and Canja are few destinations in the nearby town of Bar, with excellent beaches. Cetinje, the historical capital of Montenegro is an important cultural and religious center, being located here the presidential residence.
Here you can visit many historical and cultural monuments such as: Cetinje Monastery, built in the early twelfth century, the palace of King Nicholas I Petrovic, Vlasca Church, the fence being made of the captured enemy rifles pipes, buildings of the Embassy of France, Great Britain, Russia and Italy and Government House. The city is full of museums, the most popular being: Monastery Museum, Njegos Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Museum of Art and supply system, mostly incorporated in the National Museum of Montenegro. Kotor is a city located in one of the most beautiful bays of the Adriatic. It is a former fishing village, founded in the late twelfth century and the old center of this medieval town is on UNESCO’s World Heritage list.
The pearl of the Adriatic is Budva, a highly developed city in terms of tourism. It is situated in a bay bordered on three sides by peaks of the mountains. The coast city covers an area of 21 km, where were arranged 17 of the most beautiful beaches in Europe. Herceg Novi is where the city’s Mediterranean Health and Treatment Centeris located and a major hub of tourism in Montenegro. During the peak summer season, there are organized various musical galas, events, editorial and the Film Festival. Niksic is mentioned since the fourth century, under the name Onogost, and the remnants of this old city are the city’s cultural heritage. The city is an important industrial center and has an university and the main tourist attractions are: Ostrog monastery, situated on the cliffs outside the town, founded in the twelfth century by Bishop Vasilijethat and Sabon Church, dedicated to St. Vasilije, surrounded by a park and flanked by three lakes: Krupac, and Liverovici Slano.
Accommodation prices are very low compared to those charged in other European countries, a one week stay in a hotel of three stars reaching 210 euros per person, including breakfast and dinner. Culinary specialties are: pljeskavica, a kind of hamburger made from ingredients chosen by the buyer, cevapi, or soups of fish or Teleca riblja. Montenegro, the youngest country in Europe, which was established on 3 June 2006, is a very attractive region, and especially completely still undiscovered, where tourism is still not fully developed. Montenegro, with an area of 13,812 sq km, lies to the south – west of Balkan Peninsula and left by the Adriatic Sea. Montenegro is bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Albania and Serbia.
The first independent state in the territory of Montenegro was founded in the early 3rd century BC by the Illyrian tribes. Almost 100 years later, however, was conquered by the Romans, and the country became part of the province of Dalmatia. Gradually there began to settle ancient Slavs in the Balkans and in the 11th 11 AC in the southwest they formed their own state, Dukla. In the 15th century the Turks occupied a part of Zeta for four long centuries. Only in 1858 full independence was reached. In 1918, Montenegro joined the new formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. After the war the country has evolved, also known as the People’s Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the second half of the 20th century occurred a series of drastic changes, and finally in 2006, based on a referendum, Montenegro declared its independence.
Montenegro boasts stunning natural scenery, the beaches are mostly sandy, but there are also some with gravel. Of the 294 miles of coastline, about 75 beaches are of great quality and bays. We find here the only fjord in the Mediterranean, the wonderful golf Kotorska, surrounded by high mountains which form a right angle to it. In the western part of Montenegro is the peninsula Lustica, wild with beautiful lagoons and hidden caves. The entire coast is ideal for bathing, water sports, diving and other water sports. In southern Montenegro is a pirate stronghold in Ulcinju. This region is bounded by a chain of sand about 13 miles wide.
The most remarkable thing is Lake Skadar in Montenegro. It is situated 40 km of coastline and is the largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. It boasts a very rich fauna and flora, and for fishermen and birds it is a true paradise. Nowhere in the Mediterranean will you find such a variation in nature. Montenegro is a wonderful book full of places worth visiting. These include the Gulf Kotorska, mentioned above, the historic city of Budva, and also the summer resort of Sveti Stefan. If you want to enjoy a memorable holiday filled with history and sea stories, non-traditional and less traditional places, do not hesitate. Montenegro is waiting for you.
Montenegro is an ex-Yugoslav state which split from Serbia following a referendum in 2006. Currently, Montenegro is a sovereign state, which has international recognition and is a member of the United Nations. The capital is Podgorica and the official language is Serbian. Montenegro area is 14,000 square kilometers and the number of about 700,000 inhabitants. Tourists are attracted by natural beauty and the Adriatic coast. Montenegro borders Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania. The most important towns in Montenegro are: Podgorica (capital, 211,788 inhabitants); Nikšić (104 706); Pljevlja (44,593); Bijelo Polje (55,628); Herceg Novi (30 593, including Igalo); Berane (49,953); Kotor; the former royal capital was Cetinje (20 307).
Economy: The industry includes metallurgy, mining and production of consumer goods. Agriculture predominates in grain and livestock production. Tourism is an important economic sector. Although Montenegro is not in the European Union, the official currency is the Euro. Politics: The country became a republic by the Constitution of 1992 and is governed by a general executive, legislative and independent legal entity. Following the referendum of 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June 2006.
Demographics: Population is 618,000 inhabitants (2005) but there are also minorities of Albanian, Bosnian and Serbian. Religion: Christianity (for the most part Eastern Orthodox rite followed by Catholic), Islam. UNESCO World Heritage List registered the following objectives: natural and cultural-historical complex from Kotor (1989); Durmitor National Park (1980, 2005).
Form of government: Republic – unicameral National Assembly that consists of 88 seats elected by direct popular vote for four years. The highest peak: Bobotov Kuk, 2.522 m. Sea: The Adriatic gives Montenegro 293.5 km of coast. Climate: Mediterranean with hot summers and dry autumns and cold winters with heavy snowfall. Administrative Divisions: 21 municipalities. Time Zone: UTC+1. Country code (phone): 382. Radio emission: 31 (types of stations are unknown) (2004). Medieval Territory: Montenegro’s name was coined in the 15th century when Crnojevic dynasty took control of the Serbian principality Zetea. Over the following centuries Montenegro was able to maintain independence from the Ottoman Empire. After World War I Montenegro was included in the Serbian, Croats and Slovenes Empire that became in 1929 the Yugoslavia Empire.
With the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1992, Montenegro joined Serbia under the name of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and in 2003 in Serbia and Montenegro Union. Modern Politics: In May 2006, Montenegro has invoked the right to a referendum about independence from the union. The result has exceeded 55% of the votes, so Montenegro declared independence on June 3, 2006. Montenegro declared its new Constitution on 22 October, 2007. Independence: Obtained on June 3, 2006 against Serbia and Montenegro. Organization: Tourism industry is the main income in the economy of Montenegro. In 2005 approximately 820,000 tourists visited Montenegro, with 17% more than in 2004. Montenegro’s tourism industry is developing in terms of roads, hotels, water network and power source on the Adriatic coast.
What to see: Sveti Stefan – luxury hotel in the coastal area, Kotor – a town near the deepest fjord in Europe, Budva – the most luxurious resort on the Adriatic coast, Durmitor National Park – carved ice mountain scenery is superb in this park, National Museum of Montenegro, Stari Bar – a city surrounded by steep cliffs. When to go: The best months to travel to Montenegro are May, June and September when the weather is pleasant and not too crowded. July and August are the most expensive and crowded months, especially in the coastal area.
Events: National Day – July 13. Estimated population: 684736. Population density: 50 persons / km². Population Distribution: Urban 52% / 48% Rural (2005). Population living below the standard: 12.2% (2003). Birth rate: 11.18 to 1000 inhabitants. Death rate: 8.39 to 1000 inhabitants. Average Age: 36.79 years (average age is for Serbia and Montenegro) (2005). Education Rates: 96.4% – People who know how to read and write (more than 15 years) (statistics are for Serbia and Montenegro, 2002). Unemployment rate: 27.7% (2005). Ethnic Groups: Montenegro 43%, 32% Serb, Bosnian 8%, Albanian 5%, others (Muslim, Croatian, Roma) 12%.
Emigrants: – 3.38 persons per 1,000 inhabitants (2002) (statistics are for Serbia and Montenegro). Language: Serbian (official), Albanian, Croatian, Bosnian. Religion: Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic: Transport: car, bus, subway, ship ferryboat, train. Highways / Roads: 7.353 km. Railways: 250 km. Airports: 5. Ports: 1. Coin: Euro. Gross Domestic Product: $ 3.443 billion (total) (2006). Minimum Wage: E 52 / month. Average salary: E 188 (2004) / month. Industries: Production of steel, aluminum, agricultural industry, tourism.
Agriculture Products: Citrus fruits, tobacco, potatoes, olives, grapes, commercial fishing. Money Advice: Accommodation at the hotel is 7-250 euro; dinner at the restaurants is 1-50 euro. Personalities: Petar II Petrovic-Njegos (1813 – 1851) – Serbian Orthodox Bishop of Montenegro and a ruler who transformed Montenegro from a theocracy (a form of government where God is the supreme ruler) in a secular state. But he is best known as a poet, one of the leading poets of the Serbian language.
Conditions of entry and residence regime: EU citizens do not require visas for entry into Montenegro and staying up to 90 days. In accordance with the Law on aliens stay in Montenegro regime failure is punished with imprisonment for 5 to 30 days.
Terrorist Threats: On the territory of Montenegro are not reported assets of terrorist organizations and groups that systematically target foreigners in that country. Security conditions are good and the general climate is not affected in any way.
Safety and crime: The number of violent crimes (murder, robbery, strikes) is low; crime is kept under control by the authorities. Cases of this kind in which Are involved foreigners have been reported only rarely. The number of thefts is also relatively low, but it is advisable to avoid crowded places whenever possible or beaches heavily frequented by locals. Public Transportation: Montenegro has two airports at Podgorica and Tivat (which operate only in summer). In the airport at Podgorica and in Tivat, in the summer, there are direct connections with major European capitals and 2-3 daily flights from Belgrade.
Other current destinations: Vienna, Milan, Paris, Frankfurt, Budapest, Prague, Paris, Brussels, London. There is only one rail route Bijelo Polje, Belgrade-Podgorica-Bar, which provides the link with Serbia without any domestic ramifications. The Montenegro port of Bar ferry leave on three routes: Bar-Bari (Italy)-Bar, Bar-Ancona (Italy)-Bar and Bar-Duress (Albania)-Bar. Medical System: The medical system has two components: the state and private. In the private system is unlimited access for a fee, at current fares. For emergency medical assistance, free medical insurance is required from companies licensed in the country concluded before the holiday.
Being located in a geographic area in EU, in Montenegro is not required special vaccination. Conditions for auto transport: Montenegro has no highways but has a road network that meets its requirements largely less transport routes to the summer season which is a very busy season. On the road you must consider the fact that mountain roads are specific areas which require a continuous adaptation of speed, relative to the road condition and traffic. The coast road, from the Adriatic is very busy in the season. The general state of roads is good. For secondary routes you must get additional data for local roads because the network is made largely of narrow size of a single lane, no protective railings that can make real problems for drivers with little experience.
Circulation is normal, right side of the speed limit in towns is 60km / h and beyond 80 km / h. In the traffic, the lights must be on, apply the right priority at intersections and roundabouts in the left-wing priority. Wearing seatbelt is compulsory, and phone calls while driving are banned. Fines for violations of traffic rules are between 20 and 50 euros. Driving license: driving premise in EU countries is recognized. Information on cases of traffic accidents: Accidents of any kind must be notified to the police and traffic agents who prepare documents to obey a court of law for settlement-only able to make decisions.
Only on the basis of a court decision is issued subsequently by the police for evidence of reparations. Customs Regulations: To avoid any complications in customs is advisable not to run with significant cash sums. It is not mandatory declaration of amounts less than 5000 euros or the equivalent in other currencies. Money must be declared in writing, customs declaration required by customs officials. As a general rule, it is forbidden to bring drugs in Montenegro, other similar substances, weapons, ammunition, explosive, toxic or radioactive substances. It also prohibited the introduction of goods of a kind in large quantities in order to sell (especially cigarettes, alcohol, etc.).
Drug regime: Drugs can be introduced into the country only for personal needs, based on prescriptions, hospital discharge files and other documents in which the diagnosis is enrolled in the original, for which you have prescribed treatment. Conditions for pets: Pets can be introduced in Montenegro on the basis of evidence of animal health and vaccination status issued in home country. Using credit cards: in Montenegro there is a fairly developed banking system. They accept payment by credit card at supermarkets, restaurants and gas stations.
The first inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula were an ancient people, the Illyrians. There have followed the Slavs, VI and VII centuries. Montenegro today was the Serbian Principality Zeta in the fourteenth century. The Principality came under Ottoman rule between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. Then it belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and gaining independence in 1878. In 1910 Prince Nicholas was proclaimed king. In World War Montenegro fought with the Allies and was defeated by Austro-German forces. Nicholas was forced to flee; Montenegro was joined to Serbia, and then called the Kingdom of Serbia, Croats and Slovenes, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929.
After the Second World War, Yugoslavia became communist, under the leadership of Joseph Tito. Strictness of the leader of ethnic tensions kept under control until his death in 1980. It followed a bitter civil war, ten years later the Yugoslavia was dismantled. Those remained were only Serbia and Montenegro, which formed an official state in 2003. The agreement between the two countries, Montenegro will not be able to claim independence only after three years. In 2006 a referendum was held, after which Montenegro became an independent state.
When you say Montenegro, you think of a part of Serbia’s troubled history. When you say Montenegro, you talk about a people who managed to gain independence with patience and confidence in its future. When you say Montenegro, you have in mind, in fact, a successful model for finding the way to a market economy and rule of law. When you say Montenegro, you say the Grand Canyon and the only fjord in Central and Eastern Europe. The name Montenegro, Crna Gora, means “black mountain”, from the vast forests that covered the dark, old, heights here. Perhaps it kept era domination over the region of Venice during the Middle Ages.
On the evening of June 3, 2006, the parliament in Podgorica officially proclaimed the independence of the country ending the union with Serbia that formed a structure provisionally established in 2003 after the dissolution of the Yugoslav federation. Iceland was the first country to recognize the young state, followed by Russia, on 11 June and two days later, the United States, Britain and France. A few days later, Montenegro became the 56th member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and on June 28, was admitted to the United Nations, with the number 192.
Montenegro is in the process of EU accession. The process claims from the authorities in Podgorica solving problems of crime, smuggling, corruption, freedom of information. Meanwhile, Montenegro needs to regulate including issues arising from the separation of Serbia and that is far from final. However, in recent years, important progress scored virtually the entire line of the entry criteria – democracy, rule of law, economics. On October 15th Montenegro signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement, pointing as an important step on the way to EU. From the administrative point of view, Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities, grouped around a city whose name it bears. Montenegro is the first country in the world whose Constitution includes safeguarding the environment.
Montenegrins hold voting across the country that lived less than two years continuously, unlike the Montenegrin Diaspora, which numbers over one million people worldwide, of which more than 650,000 in Belgrade and in Serbia. Montenegro does not have a developed economy. Otherwise there was no way, given that 77% represented trade with Serbia. Hampered by extremely rugged terrain, infrastructure development was considerably delayed by the wars that followed Yugoslavia’s disintegration. However, the economy has the tools for an enviable trend, especially in tourism. Downright charming landscapes, ports typical of a special beauty, sunny beaches most of the year, gentle and benevolent climate and the proximity of the Greek islands are all arguments for a holiday in this part of the world.
And statistics confirm this: every year, more and more strangers stop here for two or more days. Since traditional agriculture is focusing mainly on livestock, is a major branch of the local economy. However, it might grow more vigorously, if terrestrial communications system would improve. In terms of industry, it is present mainly in big settlements, being oriented toward consumer goods, from textiles to food. Looking at it in terms of their share in national GDP, services rank top spot with 55% of GDP, followed by industry with 25%, tourism, and agriculture 15%, 13%. Meanwhile, the underground economy is remarkable and allows a good part of the population to bear the difficulties of transition.
Traffic is aimed at cigarettes and stolen cars, an element that harms the country’s image and casts a bad light on the investment climate. However, despite all the dire forecasts on the evolution of Montenegro after gaining its independence, the country has managed to avoid a financial crisis. Interestingly, without any part of the Economic and Monetary Union, or EU, Montenegro has unilaterally adopted the euro as currency. Montenegro can boast houses within or Grand Canyon, second only to Grand Canyon, USA, and the fjords of Kotor, unique in this corner of Europe.
Located on the shores of the bay with the same name, the town of Kotor, with its old buildings and the cathedral in the twelfth century, with a strong architecture influenced by the Venetian occupation during 1420 and 1797, is one of the major attractions of the Montenegrin coast. Montenegro also has the largest lake in the entire Baltic Peninsula – Lake Skadar, which gathers experts from around the world for many species and rare birds that nest here and that are under national and international protection.11