Travel Guides: New Zeeland
New Zealand is a country composed of two large islands and several small islands situated in the southwest of the Pacific Ocean. Among the nations of the South Pacific, New Zealand has the largest and most industrialized economy and is second after Papua New Guinea as a population.
New Zealand is notable for its isolation, being separated from Australia to the northwest by the Tasman Sea (about 2000 km away). The closest neighbors are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. Most of the population is made up of descendants of Europeans (Pakeha – in the local language), the indigenous Māori being the largest minority. Non-Māori Polynesian (Samoans) and Asian populations are also significant minorities, especially in cities.
Official the queen of Great Britain is the Queen of New Zealand and is represented in the country by Governor General of New Zealand (non-political function). Political power is held by the Prime Minister who is head of government in New Zealand Parliament, democratically elected. United Monarchy of New Zealand includes Cook Islands and Niue, which are totally self-governing, Tokelau, which turns into self-governed form and the Colony Ross which New Zeeland claims in the Antarctica.
New Zealand is one of the newest populations. Polynesians settled here have got their own waka from the thirteenth century and the fifteenth century, forming the indigenous Māori people and culture. Chatham Islanders are established in south-east of New Zealand forming Maoriori population category but are still debating whether they moved here from another part of New Zealand or elsewhere in Polynesia. Most of New Zealand was divided into tribal territories called rohe, all resources are controlled by iwi (tribe). Usually two iwi did not control the same rohe. Māori have adapted their diet to consumption of marine resources, wildlife, great hunting birds midwives (which soon disappeared), and Polynesian mouse (Rattus exulans), sweet potato (Kumara, Ipomoea batatas), which they have introduced in the territory.
The first European known to have arrived in New Zealand were led by Abel Janszoon Tasman, who sailed up the west coast of South and North islands in 1642. He named it Staten Land, believing that part of the land Jacob Le Maire discovered in 1616 off the coast of Chile. Staten Landt appears on Tasman’s first maps, but the name was changed by the mapping Netherlands (Dutch) in Nova Zealand, after the Dutch province of Zeeland, at some time after Hendrik Brouwer proved in 1643 that the territory of South America is a island. The Latin Nova Zeelandia becomes Nieuw Zeeland in Dutch.
New Zealand has a temperate oceanic climate. Historical maximum and minimum values are 42.4 ° C (108.3 ° F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and -21.6 ° C (-6.9 ° F) in Ophir, Otago. In the winter home heating is required. These are extremes of temperature, normally in winter the temperature does not fall below zero degrees, except at night and during summer rarely exceed 30 ° C. There are very rare snowfalls in winter.
The Islands of New Zealand: North Island; South Island; Stewart Island / Rakiura; Chatham Islands; Bounty Islands; Antipode Islands; Auckland Islands; Campbell Islands. Sport plays a major role in the culture of New Zealand, rugby taking a special place. Other popular sports are cricket, netball, basketball, football and rugby in XIII. Overall New Zealand has good results at Olympic and Commonwealth Games. Rugby is linked to national identity of New Zealand. The national rugby team, All Blacks, have the best record among all national rugby teams. New Zealand hosted the 1987 Rugby World Cup, the inaugural edition, and will host the 2011 edition. Haka, a traditional Maori war dance, is performed by the national team at the beginning of each international match.
New Zealand is a country with a relatively small population relative to land area, with only 3.6 million people on about 270.000 sq km surface. The territory consists of two large islands, North Island and South Island and several small islands scattered over the South Pacific area. The capital, Wellington, is located at the southernmost point of North Island; North Island and has about 400,000 inhabitants. The metropolis Auckland in New Zealand, however, having over 2 million inhabitants is the largest town in the South Pacific – Polynesia. The climate varies from temperate to subtropical ocean. The beauty and cleanliness of this small island country is famous. It can add to this tranquil life style here and the minimum level of corruption – New Zealand is the third country in the world on the list of least corrupt. Citizenship can be obtained after about three years of residence here and New Zealand passport is accepted internationally.
Inhabited in the 13-14 centuries by Polynesian, New Zealand was discovered by the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman in 1642. In 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi, Maori tribal chiefs recognizes British sovereignty. Between 1843 and 1872, the native defend from the British, but without success. New Zealand became a dominion in 1907 and a member of the Commonwealth in 1931. In the two world wars, New Zealand fought alongside the United Kingdom. New Zealand was the first country in the world that granted women voting – 1893.
Location: Island in the South Pacific Ocean, south-east of Australia. Area: Total: 268,680 sq km. Extreme points: The deepest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m, Highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m. Population: 3,951,307 (July 2003 estimate). Age structure: Between 0 and 14 years: 21.9% (443,837 men, 423,118 women), 15-64 years: 66.5% (male 1,318,751; female 1,307,796), Over 65 years: 11.6% (male 199,722, female 258,083) (2003 estimate). Ethnic groups: White 87%, 9% Maori, Polynesian, Chinese, Indians. Religion: 50% Protestantism, Catholicism, 15%, local cults or without religion. Languages spoken: English, Maori. Capital: Wellington. Independence Day: February 6 (the anniversary of signing the Treaty of Waitangi, 1840). Coin: Neo Zealand dollar (NZD). Means of communication: Telephones: 1.92 million (2000), Mobile: 2.2 million (2000), TV stations: 41, Internet country code: .nz, Internet users: 2.06 million (2002 estimate)
Airports: 113 (2002 estimate).
In New Zealand, every tourist feels an explorer of an uncharted territory. Surprises abound. When you see for the first time a whale in the wild of the ocean’s water, you feel that your life will never be the same. It’s like you would reveal a secret of nature in all its grandeur. Moreover, the same feeling you have when you swim with seals and dolphins in their natural environment. The best routes to meet whales and dolphins start in Kaikoura and an excellent bath between the seals you can do in the National Park “Abel Tazmania”. Dolphins are attracted only by experienced divers, who manage to imitate sounds. Seals are very playful; they get very close to you without fear and have the habit of looking in the eyes. In Waitomo village, is the Caves Museum. The institution is impressive and deserved to beat way up there just to visit. But most tourists are attracted to the labyrinth of caves carved into the limestone, found near the village.
Here, the work of the nature is wonderful. You can do a walk through the cave of Fire Flies, where those with a good physical condition have waterproof suits and rafts available for special leave to carry the waters of a river underground, in darkness where only fire flies green sparkles. Or try “Lost World Adventure”, which is a route through a huge cave. The main attraction of the Museum of New Zealand city of Wellington is a national treasure. Here, an ambitious technology has recreated the traditions and culture of a people. In virtual reality, you can experience a Maori ceremony (as locals call themselves) in the Mara, meaning the hut where the elders gather. In Whitianga, on Rorromandel coast, you can carve your own amulet to bring you luck. And this just in one day! Choose a model of the existing over a hundred, you are providing the necessary tools and, under the guidance of local craftsman, carve a bone. You proudly wear the talisman that you have forged with your hands.
Comparable in size and shape to Great Britain, Colorado and Japan, New Zealand has a population of 4 million, giving one of the lowest densities in the world. This place is a haven for those seeking peace and relaxation, but also for those seeking adventure. Temperate climate with small seasonal variations make this country a tourist destination throughout the year. Special landscapes of this country include mountain ranges, volcanoes, coastline, deep fjords and lush tropical forests. New Zealand is spread over several small islands. The most developed, North Island, home to Sydney and South Island has vast wild spaces, just good to get away from the crowds. Little Stewart Island / Rakiura is a remnant of New Zealand before being discovered by people.
Separation of the country to other continents over 100 million years has allowed many species to survive and develop in isolation. Complementary variation of animals and plants, there are large variations in relief. In a few days a trip by car you can see from the mountains to beaches, lush rain forests, glaciers, fjords and volcanoes. The largest and most cosmopolitan city in New Zealand, Auckland, is an excellent point from which to start exploring north. Known as “The City Sails” because of the many yachts, beautiful beaches and port, Auckland is in the spotlight during the summer. The capital Wellington is located at the southern tip of North Island. Increasingly many locals call the city “Wellywood” due to success of the film director Peter Jackson did with Lord of the Rings trilogy. Often pass through this city international film stars.
The capital praises with symphony orchestra, opera, several theaters, the Embassy Cinema and Te Papa National Museum. There are ferries that run to the South Island. Christchurch is the largest city in South Island, often called “Garden City”. It is probably the most European city in New Zealand. From here you can organize more activities and climbing Cook Mountains is just one of them. Main attractions: The height of 3.754m, Aoraki Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand, attracts mountain climbers from around the world with its snow covered peaks in the National Park Aoraki / Mount Cook on South Island. Aorkiin resembles skyscrapers pierce the Maori. There are regular tours to the Mount Cook Tasman Glacier, the largest in New Zealand. Other attractions include the Hooker Glacier, Tasman Glacier and Mount Murchison, Mount Dampier.
Outdoor activities include helicopter flights, mountain flights, sludge, hunting, fishing, mountain biking and hiking. Sky City Tower is 328m tall and is very complex which also houses Sky City Casino, Sky City Theatre, hotels and restaurants. The post-modernist tower was built in 1997 and has three circular levels of observation that gives you 360 degree views over Auckland and Waitemata Harbor, the top of Rangitoto Island and other islands in the Hauraki Gulf. You can dine at Orbit revolving restaurant. Te Papa Tongarewa Museum is located in the water near Wellington and is New Zealand’s national museum. The museum was opened to provide more details about the cultural identity of people, the geography of the country and has attracted international praise for its ultra-modern exhibits.
Tongariro National Park was a gift to Queen Victoria from the Tuwharetoa Maori chief, Te Heuheu Tukino IV in 1887. The territory of the park has a religious and cultural importance to Maori population, which took place in the ninth century, when they came from Polynesia. They also believed the mountains are home to ancestors of the gods and the center of the park consists of three active volcanoes – Tongariro, Ngauruhoe and Ruapehu, which erupted spectacularly in 1995 and 1996. Some areas have a monthly landscape created by lava that flowed in forests and grasslands. Fiordland National Park is the largest national park in New Zealand and is a beautiful stretch of coastal scenery typical of this country.
Created in 1952, the park consists of ice, beach forests, mountains and waterfalls that spill into the ocean. One of the biggest attractions of the park is Milford Sound, created the largest glacier fjord on the coast of the country and attracts a large number of visitors and cruise ships every year. Activities which are at the park are hiking, sea kayaking, diving, cycling, golf, fishing and sailing. A typical breakfast consists of eggs, sausages and ham. At lunch is usually eaten a meat pie, a U.S. hamburger sandwich. Dinner is a meal with meat dishes, often of lamb. The most popular entree is the dinner mint sauce with baked potato and pumpkin. Afternoon tea is still a popular British style, accompanied by pastries or cookies.
The most famous culinary tradition Maori is “hangi” – a party that is prepared only in the regions where there are hot springs. They are digging a pit filled with stones and place over meat and vegetables. Hangi are offered by resorts in northern North Island, where tourists are pampered with traditional-style dining. From the beginning, New Zealand was at the forefront of establishing social security legislation – in 1893 was the first country in the world that granted women the right to vote, in 1898 adopted a pension, in 1907 the national child care program, social assistance for older people, widows and orphans, plus money for family support, minimum wage, in 1938 the work week of 40 hours and health insurance and socialized medicine in 1941.
New Zealand fought with the Allies in both World Wars and in Korea. In 1999 it became part of UN forces keeping the peace in East Timor. In recent years New Zealand has introduced an extreme liberal socialist policy. In 2003, the parliament legalized prostitution and in 2004 was recognized same-sex marriage. Puketi Forest: Together with the forest Omaha, Puketi form the largest continuous land covered with native forests. Haruru Falls: Haruru means “big noise”. The Horseshoe-shaped waterfall is spectacular, Maori legend saying that a monster lives in the lagoon below. Stone Store: Located in Kerikeri, the “deposit” is the oldest stone building in New Zealand. Waitangi Treaty Grounds: These were given to the Nation by Lord and Lady Bledisloe in 1932. The most important document of New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed here in 1840 between Maori chiefs and British Crown, becoming the lifestyle of today. Memorial Museum Library: This museum offers a view of the history of mining in Kawakawa.
Mount Hutt is the largest ski resort of New Zealand in Canterbury. It is located on the South Island, at the foot of the Alps South East, about 100 km west of Christchurch. Mount Hutt boasts one of the longest ski seasons in an Austraasii – from early June to mid October. In the case of small amounts of snow are available for snowmaking operators. Mount Hutt ski resort offers nine ski lifts and cable harnesses. From the top of Mount Hutt (2075), skiers can get a good show in the neighborhood. Of course there is also food for skiers and large parking lots. Mount Hutt ski area is best accessed from the town of Methven, In the town we can name a few curiosities of interest such as Hokitika about 98 km, Lyttelton about 96 km, Christchurch about 89 km, National Park Aoraki (Mount Cook) about 99 km, National Park Arthur’s Pass about 66 km, Port Hills about 96 km, Banksův peninsula about 112 km, Mount Cook about 113 km.
Huka Falls waterfall is known in New Zealand. This is reportedly one of the most visited natural attractions in the country. They are located on the North Island, Waikato River, which flows from Lake Taupo. One of the most visited natural attractions is Huka Falls
Vodopády, New Zealand. They are more than 100 m long and 20 meters wide. The volume of water flowing is almost 220,000 gallons per second. Vodopády are relatively easily accessible on foot from the road to State Highway One. Observation deck is located just above the waterfall. One option is to also look under special speedboat stunts. Some of daredevil stunts even travel by canoe.
In the town we can name a few tourist curiosities, like about 58 km is Rotorua, Tongariro National Park about 78 km, Mt Ngauruhoe about 69 km, 84 km around Mount Ruapehu, Lake Taupo about 23 km, Waimangu Volcanic Valley about 49 km, Waiotapu Thermal Country Wonder about 40km, Orak Korak Geyserland about 20 km, about 56 km Whakarewarewa, Mr. Lake about 48 km. Frying Milbrook Department is one of the best courses in the world of golf. Milbrook Department is an 18-hole golf course; the most famous golfer is Bob Charles of New Zealand. The course is known for its wide field, large green, strategically placed obstacles, and beautiful landscape of mountain peaks in the background. The course is well maintained and is flanked by a number of trees.
In the town we can name a few tourist curiosities, like about 1.2 km Arrowtown, Queenstown about 15 km, about 62 km Hawe Lake, Lake Wanaka, about 53 km, about 36 km Low Con, Milford Road about 72 km around New Zealand snowing Park 22 km. In addition, you can see some of the commercial plants, trvalkovými beds, Palm Garden, Rosario and original New Zealand forest. Freed is also a large collection of local sage and Magnolia. The area includes a small specialized library with 2,500 volumes. Auckland Botanic Gardens is open from mid October to mid March 8 to 20 hours daily. The rest of the year is open Monday through Friday, 8 to 16 hours. On weekends it is open 9 to 16 hours.
Kauri Cliffs golf course is internationally acclaimed in New Zealand. Kauri Cliffs Kauri Cliffs is a 18-hole golf course of the architect David Harman. It was opened to the public in 2000. Course length is 6510 m. Cape kidnapper is the best golf courses in New Zealand. It lies on the North Island, Hawke’s Bay and offers beautiful views of the ocean and steep cliffs. Cape Kidnapper golf course is unique and spectacular, which is ranked among the wonders of modern golf. Its architect is Tom Doak. He took advantage of local rocks, the stunning coastline to create a golf course that nowhere else in the world can boast. Akaroa is famous primarily for its estuary, or where blue dolphins come very often. This town was founded by French settlers that arrived here in the early twentieth century, in an appreciable numbers. You can see in the pictures and the French flag hoisted on the main building. In the city, the pleasant surprise is to hear people speaking French around there, but rarely. All the streets have French names.
New Zealand consists of two large islands, elongated NE-SW direction, being accompanied to the east of trench Kermadek. Together with Stewart Island in the South and many other islands around the large, they total 270 840 sq km. The archipelago is situated on a large submarine base. Between the North Island and South Island Cook Strait is considered a tectonic accident, made by dipping a mountainous area. Throughout the North Island meets a mountain terrain, terrain in the central part, a volcanic landscape with plateaus and volcanic activity in the central-north, then a mountain terrain, hills and plateaus with altitudes of over 500m, with karst and forms finally, the coastal plains to the edges. In the South Island are mountainous (over 2000 m altitude), with alpine terrain, hilly areas and plateaus, generally below 1000 m, and fluvial-marine plains.
Climate is temperate and moderate in the archipelago, characterized by low temperature difference between extreme seasons. Thus, in Auckland in North Island, the average summer temperature is around 19o C and 11o C in the winter, the only difference is amplitude characteristic 8o of oceanic climate. Precipitation generally is abundant, due to the influence of the ocean and landscape. In the North Island 1000 mm precipitation falls annually on average, in the South Island, west coast, fall about 5000 mm. New Zealand – rivers, lakes, swamps, etc. – Are quite numerous and have many uses in the economy. Many rivers have their origins in the Southern Alps region of glacial lakes in the North Island Volcanic Plateau.
Regarding vegetation, it has a pronounced originality existing no Australian species here. The archipelago is characterized, in this view by elements of temperate forests, and subtropical, about 400 species of ferns, of which the most attractive is the silver fern-bright white. Forests that once covered large areas have been largely destroyed by the indigenous. Residue of Kauri pine forest is composed of a magnificent tree that can reach 40m high and resin which is highly sought after. These forests have been preserved better in the North Island. Predominate in the South Island the forests of Totara, Rimau or red pine. Here, at low altitudes, are met sub-antarctic beech forests. In general we can say that forests in New Zealand are a great variety. Fauna also presents an increased endemic. It was and is the birth place of many Kiwi birds, midwives, the acclimatized animals: marsupials, mammals (bore, ermine), trout, etc.
It was populated by Maori, whose migration from Hawaiki and other islands of Polynesia took place in several waves, between XII and XIV centuries BC. Currently here are living the Maor especially in the northern tip of North Island, showing a marked trend in recent decades to settle in cities. New Zealand’s population has varied over the years: In 1978, New Zealand’s population was 3,195,000 inhabitants, representing almost 300,000 Maori. In 1979, the state’s population decreased by 11,600 people. Currently, the state’s population is approximately 3.6 million inhabitants. The birth rate is declining: 26.2 o / oo in 1962; 22 o / oo in 1970; 17.3 o/oo in 1978. Maori population growth rate is double the average total population, while infant mortality in this group still remains high. The average population density is only 13 inh/sq km. The most populated regions correspond to peripheral sectors of the North Island, plus Canterbury province of South Island and the population of rare (less than 5 inh./sq km) meets the vast mountainous strip that runs through the South Island and Central Volcanic Plateau of the North Island.
Important cities: Wellington (351 000 inhabitants, with Hutt City), the state capital; Auckland (804 200 inhabitants), the largest city in New Zealand; Christchurch. New Zealand is known as a country whose economy is dominated primarily by agriculture and animal husbandry sector, which has some of the first places in the world. A long time New Zealand’s economic role was to supply the British market with milk, dairy products, meat and wool. This dependence on exports and favorable natural conditions to agriculture, on the one hand, a series of stringent objective factors, on the other hand, have led to falling behind the industry of agriculture. Economic activities (industry, agriculture, transport, trade inside and outside) are unevenly distributed in the North Island occupies a privileged position in all these areas and the imbalance occurred between the two large islands tend to grow. The recent boom in this sector of the economy has become possible following intensive use of hydropower resources through upgrading of the natural gas deposits of iron ore by massive imports of raw materials and semi-finished products for industrialization.
New Zealand industry is still primarily oriented towards satisfying domestic demand. As mentioned, the gap between the two large islands of industrialization are always amplified for the North Island, although in recent decades industry Christchurch City had a remarkable development, and in other South Island regions of large modern enterprises have been created or were enlarged the existing ones (aluminum, the Bluff, cement, at Newport, in Westland). Rivers are the main source of energy in New Zealand; their potential is greatly valued. On the slopes of the volcanic plateau and the Southern Alps, the river network is dense, and rivers have considerable debts in a steady diet. Along the rivers which drain the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps and the Waikato River basin (North Island), operate several plants.
In Southland and Westland Provincial districts are brown coal and lignite mining, is recovered also in the Miocene coal deposits of the Waikato region. Reserves, insufficient, hard coal found in Downlands, Southland and Westland. Recently were discovered rich deposits of natural gas. Iron ore on the western shore of the North Island are increasingly used in the steel industry, especially in the enterprise operating at Glenbrook. Some of the sand ferifers are exported to Japan. Mechanical engineering is the company to assemble vehicles – mainly cars – in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, plants, agricultural machinery, transport equipment, electrical products. Refining oil is carried out mainly at Marsden Point and Whangarei, the total capacity of oil refineries in New Zealand is over 3.5 million t. To the above mentioned sectors are added wood industry, textile, apparel and footwear, well represented in all major towns.
New Zealand is characterized by a high level of mechanization and organization. Electricity is used fully in all stages of production, using large quantities of fertilizers and modern agricultural technologies. Sowing pasture species with the most appropriate maintenance and improvement of pastures, achieving higher agricultural production is ongoing scientific concerns. New Zealand holds the primary place of livestock, resulted from the use of land. New Zealand has a considerable number of sheep, ranking fourth in the world (after Australia, Russia and China) and cattle. The main sheep farming areas are peripheral areas of the North Island (especially Eastland) and the South Island: Downlands, Southland, Otago and eastern Canterbury Plain. New Zealand is the third largest producer of wool as Australia and Russia.
Crop has a secondary role. The main agricultural area is in the South Island, east of the axis of the mountainous and plain regions Canterbury Downlands. Here is a composite farming practice, including both crop plants and livestock croak. They exploit both indigenous forestry species (rimu, matte, southern beech species) and those introduced (conifers). Massive exotic plantations are most prominent forest resource potential. New Zealand has a relatively dense road network and well organized (more than 100 000 km of roads paved with 41 650km) with a considerable fleet of vehicles (1,384,300 in 1975). The density of railways is much lower: 17.1 km/1000 sq km. A bus-rail seeks South Island’s eastern shore and another peripheral ring formed in North Island. Rail traffic is most intense recorded on the Auckland-Wellington (about two fifths of the railway traffic of New Zealand).
Maritime merchant fleet primarily meets the requirements of foreign trade. The most active ports: Whangarei, Auckland and Wellington, North Island. Air transport also contributes to easing the isolation of this landlocked country to the antipodes. Many airlines link the cities Wellington, Auckland, Christchurch with Australia, USA, Canada, Europe, and various Pacific islands west and south. Aviation is widely used in agriculture. The character is the representative of the massive exports of animal products: meat and meat products, wool, milk, milk, hides and skins. New Zealand is the third leading exporter of wool. The import is crude oil, petroleum products, ores, steel, iron, thin metal, machinery, transport equipment, chemicals and textiles.11