Travel Guides: Pakistan
Pakistan is situated in Southeast Asia, in the Indus basin and it is bordered by Afghanistan to the northwest, China in north, India in east, Iran to the west and has exit to the Arabian Sea in the south.
The capital city of Pakistan is Islamabad. On the territory of Pakistan flourished the Indus civilization (third millennium BC); around 1500 BC, here come the Indo-European tribes. Subsequently the territory is ruled by: the Persians, Alexander the Great (327 BC-325 BC); in the IV-III centuries BC it is part of the Maurya Empire; in the IV-V centuries it is part of the Gupta Empire, in the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries of the Moguls the Great Empire, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from the British colony of India. In 1947, this colony and dominion is divided into Indian Union (the Hindu population) and Pakistan (with the Muslim population). In 1947, Pakistan proclaim their independence within the Commonwealth.
In 1947-1949, there is a conflict between India and Pakistan regarding the Kashmir. In 1956 it declares the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (a federation of two provinces that compose it). In 1958, was introduced the martial law. In 1962 it adopted a new Constitution, wit a presidential-type regime. In 1965, there is a new Indo-Pakistani war. In 1966, Oriental Pakistan asks for autonomy; in 1971, secession is done and is born Bangladesh, which India with intervenes militarily to support it. Between 1971-1977, Ali Bhutto implements an Islamic socialism and nationalized agriculture, banks, leaving the Commonwealth and SEATO (military pact) and begins a flurry of religious-conservative type.
In 1977, there is a military coup and Ali Bhutto is executed (1979). They introduce Islamic law. In 1986, martial law is lifted. The conflict between fundamentalists and followers of liberalism is reinforced. In 1990, Islamic democratic alliance wins early elections. In 1993, there is a new political crisis. After early parliamentary elections, Benazir Bhutto returns to head the government.The state: it is a presidential republic, under the Constitution of 1973 (updated in 1985). Legislative power is exercised by the President and the Federal Legislature (Parliament consists of Senate and National Assembly), the executive in a cabinet appointed by the National Assembly.
Himalayan area is extended in Pakistan by Hindukush Mountains with the Peak Tirich Mir (7700 m) in N. In the west the Belucistan, an extension of the great Iranian plateau that continues in Pakistan in the form of semi-arid plateaus and heights, with an altitude of 3,000 m. In east is the Indus river valley, with a plain below 200 m. In east a part of the Thar Desert shares it with India. Indus (3180 km) is an important river basin for irrigation. Indus tributaries flow from the Himalayas: Sutlej, Chenab, Jelub, Beas, Rabi. In south, where the Indus flows, is forming a large delta, called Sind. River network is filled with a network of irrigation canals, the oldest and most spread in the world.
Climate: Tropical arid. Annual temperatures – average 26 Â° C on plateaus and 4 Â° C; 31 Â° C and 17 Â° C on the plains. Rainfall: 250 mm / year at Qetta, 510 mm / year in the plain, 1020 mm / year in the mountains. Flora and fauna: About 3% forests, especially in the mountains of N; Indus valley – steppe vegetation, desert vegetation xerophyte. Demography: Pakistani population is composed of Indo-Aryan, Punjabi, Urdu, Sindhi, Pushtu, Baluchi. The concentration of population in the plain of Indus River and its basin’s side. Birth rate: 37 â€°, the mortality: 7.8 â€°. Urban population: 34%. Economy: Developing economy based on intensive irrigated agriculture in the Indus Plain.
They grow wheat, rice, millet, barley, cotton (exports), jute, flax, castor oil, tea, oilseeds, sesame. Livestock: cattle, babulins, sheep, donkeys, camels (resources: wool, leather). Mineral resources: coal, oil (Dhulian, Balkassar, Khaur), natural gas, chromium salt. Textile (cotton, jute, wool) railway workshops, electrical materials, constructions and ship repairing (Karachi), chemical fertilizer, cement. Transport and communications: Railways, cars, commercial fleet. Airports in Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. Cities: Karachi (port), Lahore, Faisalabad and Rawalpindi (the NE), Hyderabad (S).
Pakistan is a country shaken by crises relentlessly: its borders were artificially drawn, the conflict with India persists because of mutual territorial problems, the neighbor to the west, Afghanistan is ravaged by civil war and internal situation of the state is very complicated. Climatic conditions in Pakistan are very different: in the north there are five peaks over 800 m altitude of eternal snows, in the south, near the Arabian Sea, stretching wetlands occupy 60 000 sq km, and Balucistan desert, the west is considered one of most arid regions.
The heart of Pakistan is the Plain Punjabi, crossed by the Indus River and its tributaries. Over half the population lives in this large and fertile valley. Here are the main industrial centers of Pakistan. To the west, bordering Afghanistan, people are organized as in the old days in tribal associations that affirm independence from the authorities from Islamabad. Pakistan is a multinational state. In addition, in the last 25 years here have found refuge over three million refugees, mainly from Afghanistan arrived torn by the civil wars and foreign military interventions. Pakistan is an impoverished country where arable surfaces are too low in relation to the number of people.11