Travel Guides: Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea is a state located in the western Pacific Ocean (in Melanesia), north of Australia and east of Indonesia (9 ° 30′ S, 147 ° 07′ E). It shares New Guinea Island with the provinces of Papua and West Papua of Indonesia. The capital is Port Moresby.
The official name of the state is Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea state area is 462,840 sq km. Papua New Guinea is divided into 20 provinces: Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands Western, Western Highlands and West New Britain. Main cities: Port Moresby, Wewak, Madang, Goroka, Lae and Daru. Papua New Guinea has a population of 5,887,000 inhabitants (estimated in 2005) and has a density of 13 inhabitants / km².
Ethnic minority groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Micronesian, Polynesian. Urban Population: 12%. Birth rate: 27.55 ‰. Mortality: 6.86 ‰. Life expectancy: 64 years for men and 68.7 years for women. Official languages: English, Tok pisin and hiri motou. Spoken languages: Tok pisin, hiri motu, Yale, Unserdeutsch. Papua New Guinea is an active area in terms of earthquake being included in The Ring of Fire, the volcanic activity representing 75% of the total worldwide. Hydrographic: rivers and lakes. Climate: Tropical climate with oceanic and equatorial influences. The State is independent from 16 September 1975.
Total GDP: $ 14.363 billion. GDP per capita: $ 2.418. National Bank: Bank of Papua New Guinea. Currency: kina (PGK symbol). Religion: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Protestant 10%, 34% indigenous religions. Political System: Form of government – Constitutional monarchy (in the Commonwealth). Head of State: As a British monarch, the queen of the United Kingdom is the sovereign of the state. Executive power is exercised by a National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Composition of executive power: Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister.
Legislative power: It is exercised by a unicameral National Parliament. Main political parties: National Alliance Party; People’s Democratic Movement; People’s Progress Party; Union Papua and Niugini; People’s Action Party; People’s Workers Party. Papua New Guinea lies south of the equator, in northern Australia. It is the last of the islands that stretches from South East Asia toward the Pacific and includes the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands. The landscape is dominated by the Owen Stanley Range mountain chain, with many peaks exceeding 4,000 m altitude. Three-fourths of the area is covered by tropical forests, the rest being delta, green plains and marshes, rivers that flood the territory are Fly, Sepik and Ramu. The main islands are New Ireland, Bougainville and New Britain, surrounded by strange coral formations.
Over 9,000 species of plants grow in this exotic land, mostly in tropical forest lands as a lower altitude, more than 250 species of mammals (especially rats and bats, and marsupials, such as the tree kangaroo), 700 species of birds (parrots a variety not found elsewhere in the world), the giant Queen Alexandra Birdwing butterfly that can be broken with a firearm, scarabs often used for making jewelry. Papua New Guinea has only four nature reserves, among which the most famous are Varirata National Park and McAdam National Park. There are plans to create more parks; flora and fauna are endangered because of pollution caused by the intense copper mines. This country is a destination for adventurous tourists rather than for those that want to explore exotic lands, or looking at just a relaxing vacation.
Port Moresby: It is the state capital, the most important point of entry / exit points for tourists, with many attractions, but also with a high crime rate, although it is said that it rather barks than bites. In the northeast is the wonderful waterfall Rouna and the Nationa Park Varirata and in the north is Brown River, an excellent place for swimming, rafting and picnics. Kokoda road links the north coast of the south; it is one of the most beautiful walking trails, came into history thanks to the struggle between Japanese and Allied forces in the Second World War.
Madang Province: is a fertile coastal region, bordered by some of the steepest mountains in the land. In general there are numerous volcanic islands, still active. In the center of the province lies the town of the same name, considered by some the most stylish of the Pacific. Seemed to practically throw water, the city is dotted with parks, lakes, roads, water, offering excellent conditions for snorkelling and diving. On the island Kranket of the same province are several towns and a beautiful lagoon, while Long Island, east of Madang, is known worldwide for its impressive number of birds that inhabit it.
Rabau: Located in a spectacular mountain landscape, the city was destroyed in September 1994 by the Tuvurvur volcano. Today, though buried in the ashes, it is worth seeing: the ruins of the broken wings of birds seem dead, kept in a surreal, apocalyptic scenario off like a science fiction film. You can walk without any danger to expose on the deserted streets today and climb to the top of volcanoes, yet avoiding Tuvurvur volcano that still smokes.
Highlands: It is the most populous and most fertile island, where there are three major cities: Kainantu, Mt Hagen and Mendi, and modern blends harmoniously with tradition. In the ’30s gold seekers found a population that lived here like in the Stone Age and today you can admire the many artifacts that recall prehistoric times. In this area is Mount Gahavisuka (natural reserve with marked trails, picnic places and exotic flora), Mount Wilhelm, the tallest in the country (4000 m), Lake Kutubu offers a wonderful landscape. Sepik: With its islands, with wonderful beaches and its mountains, ravines, Sepik is perhaps the most fascinating land of this state. The landscape is dominated by the Sepik River, with a length of 1126 km, with water-colored oil. Traditional houses on its banks, long canoe with crocodile head, fauna, lakes covered with flowers, sunsets and sunrises misty bright, the beaches at Cape Moem or Vanimo, tribal culture Abalos (haus tambarans cult Yam, unique sculptures world) will provide unforgettable memories.
Time: GMT / UTC + 10. Electricity: 240V, 50Hz. Credit cards: are accepted in most hotels and restaurants. When you go shopping, it is advisable to have cash in local currency. Tipping: No tipping is expected, prices are not negotiable, and sellers are offended by attempts to negotiate. Water: Bottled water consumption is recommended. Currency: The national currency is the kina. Climate: The climate is typical monsoon: hot, humid, with rain throughout the year. The rainy season lasts from December to March, the dry from May to October, but there are regional variations, especially on some island. Temperatures are generally between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius all year round constant, only varying humidity and wind intensity. In the mountains temperatures are very low, especially in the Highlands. There is no obligation of any vaccinations.
It is a parliamentary democracy, constitutional. Is has a unicameral Parliament (109 seats, 89 are occupied by open areas and 20 provincial election and the capital; members are elected by popular vote for a period of five years). The relief consists of low plains, mountains and islands near the shore. The highest peak: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m. Sea: Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean state gives 5152 km of coast. Neighborhood: Pacific Ocean, Coral Sea, Australia, Indonesia. Country code (phone): 675. Radio emission: AM 8, FM 19, ultra-short 28. The eastern side of New Guinea Island was divided between Germany and Great Britain in 1885. It was transferred from Britain to Australia in 1902. During World War Australia has won the other party and administered the territory until independence in 1975. A secessionist revolt which lasted nine years ended in 1997 and has claimed 20,000 lives. Modern Politics: There are no presidential elections.
The monarch is hereditary and appoints the governor. After winning parliamentary elections the party leader is appointed prime minister by the governor. Tourism is not very developed in this state. The main attractions are the local culture, diving, festivals, surfing and fishing. Every year more than 70,000 tourists visit Papua New Guinea. What to see: Lake Kutubu, Mt Wilhelm National Park Varirata. When to go: The best time to visit Papua New Guinea is between June and September when the weather remains constant. Events: Independence Day, September 16.
Estimated Population: 5.795.887. Population density: 12.7 persons / km ². Population Distribution: Urban: 15% Rural: 85%. Population living below: 0.37. Birth rate: 28.76 to 1000 inhabitants. Death rate: 7.14 to 1000 inhabitants. Average Age: 21.4 years. Education Rates: 57.3% – People who know how to read and write (more than 15 years). Unemployment rate: 2% and 80% in urban areas. Ethnic Groups: Melanesians, Papuans, Negrito, Micronesians, Polynesian. Emigrants: 0 people/1000 persons. Language: English, Motu. Religion: Roman Catholic 22%, 16% Lutheran, Presbyterian / Methodists 8%, Anglican 5%, 4% Evangelists Alliance, Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, 34% local beliefs.
Transport: airplane, boat, helicopter. Shipping routes: 11.000 km. Highways / Roads: 19.600 km. Railways: None. Airports: 578. Ports: 3. Coin: kina. Gross Domestic Product: 15.41 billion. Minimum Wage: kina 37.5 per week. Industries: extracting gold, silver, and copper, oil extraction and refining, construction, tourism. Agriculture Products: coffee, cocoa, copra, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruits, vegetables, vanilla, pork and chicken. Climate: tropical with temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees on the coast, and cold nights in the mountains.
Papua New Guinea consists of over 600 islands that form the middle of a chain of islands that stretches from South-East Asia. For a country known to Europeans since the sixteenth century, modern development and relations with the outside are still something new for Papua New Guinea. Contact with the outside world is still minimal in some places. Much of the interior regions are still inaccessible roads that can be reached by air or trekking on foot. The phenomenon of isolation has helped preserve the traditions and lifestyle of residents. Locals speak over 700 different languages; this is very obvious once it is in this country. Geography is very diverse, from high mountains to coral reefs and white sandy beaches. Residents believe that they are inhabitants of the Pacific than Asians.
Since the level of development is low and quality services are few, the objects of primary necessity are more expensive than usual. Before your adventure, remember that this country still faces political problems and the crime rate is high, so security measures are required. In New Guinea there are the best diving sites in the world. The meeting place of three oceans arise a great diversity in marine reef. The waters are populated by the lower vertebrates and up to the biggest fish. Here is organized as diving and there are boats offering accommodation options.
Main attractions: Visit the capital Port Moresby located in Fairfax Port. Here is the National Parliament, National Museum, Botanical Garden and the Catholic Cathedral, built in the style tambaran haus. Just outside the town you can see Sogeri Kokoda trail. Other attractions nearby are Wairiata National Park, Crocodile Farm Moitaka, Lolo Island Marine Park and Oceanarium. Stroll through the beautiful botanical garden in Lae, Morobe province capital. Mount Lunaman center was used by the Germans and Japanese as a standby in the Second World War due to the sights on Markham Valley and Huon Gulf.
Take a tour of the island and up the Sepik River in Madang, the provincial capital Madang. It has a variety of shops and markets where you can buy plates that narrate myths and legends. Nearby Yabobs Bilbils you can watch potters at work. Visit Kanganaman, the place to rebuild a tambaran haus (house spirit) of national importance and admire the carved masks, totems, canoes and mobile stairs of each local clan. Search the handicraft items in Eastern Highlands. Bena Bena village near Goroka is the largest weaving center in the region. Nearby is Asaro, a place where men are covered with mud to recreate a historical revenge on neighboring village, whose inhabitants had fled believing that people eating earth covered with mud are ghosts.
Admire the beauty of paradise bird sanctuary Wildlife Baiyer River at 55 km north of Mount Hagen. Opossums, tree kangaroos, parrots and cazuars also live in this habitat. Visit some of the 576 km of underground tunnels dug by the Japanese on the island of New Britain that have been severely affected by volcanic activity in 1994. The restaurants use ingredients such as meat, fish, vegetables and fresh fruit (pineapple, pawpaw, mango, passion fruit and bananas). Traditional cuisine is based on local cultures such as taro, yams kaukau and root, sago and pork. Sago is very important in low territories. The palm heart is a starch which is used in pancakes and dumplings. A tortilla pancakes resembles sago. At higher altitudes the main root consume yams and pork meat, consumed on special occasions.
Mumu is a traditional way to combine pork with potatoes, rice and greens. The number of European restaurants, Chinese and Indonesian is growing. The eastern half of New Guinea was first explored by Spanish and Portuguese in the sixteenth century. In 1828 the Dutch formally took over the western half of the island (now West Papua, Indonesia). In 1885 Germany formally annexed the northern coast, as did the United Kingdom in the south. In 1906 the UK has transferred its rights and independence of New Guinea to Australia on behalf of the territory was changed to Papua Territory. Australian troops invaded German New Guinea (called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland) in first world war and gained control of the League of Nations mandated territory. Part of New Guinea and Papua were invaded by Japan in 1942. After being released by the Australian in 1945, it became a NATO trusteeship, administered by Australia.
The territories were united and called Territory Papua New Guinea. In 1975 Papua New Guinea achieved full independence. On the island of Bougainville has been a violent secessionist movement for nine years. In 1989 Bougainville Revolutionary Army guerrillas closed Australian copper mine, a great source of income for the country. Bougainville rebels thought they deserved a greater share of earnings. In 1990 a guerrilla army in Bougainville declared independence and the government blocked the island until January 1991 when was signed a peace treaty. The 1998 earthquake triggered a tsunami wave off the north coast of Papua New Guinea that killed at least 1,500 people and left behind thousands of wounded and homeless people.
Melanesians rural and urban areas have very different ways to greet and to say goodbye. In parts of the high lands men face each other, rubbing their belly. In most regions have been replaced with traditional greetings by Western method of raising your hand. It is very rude that during the greeting to look into each others eyes. Handshake is made with eyes on the floor. In many groups perform marriages between people from different villages. Courtship rituals are special. For example, Chikbu men attract women with their vocal qualities. Men decorate their body in ways designed to be more attractive to women they desire. Marriages are negotiated between the two families and paying an amount usually to the father of the bride, by the groom.
Evolution stopped at a point in Papua New Guinea. The territories are inhabited by tens of thousands of years and yet, in the sixteenth century, when Europeans arrived, the natives continued to live in a “Stone Age”, using only tools made of bone, wood and stone. But Papua New Guinea is a country on fast forward. The locals, who have learned to use iron only last a few hundred years, and are now trying to move into the IT era. Along the Sepik River, an “authentic copy” of the Amazon, watched by mosquitoes the size of a hen’s egg, residents live close to a thousand years ago, painting their faces, wearing tribal costumes that cover only certain parts of body, crocodile hunting with bow and arrow and cultivating vegetables.
Papuans are among the most famous artists of the Earth’s crude, because they make unique items and collectioners from around the world offer big money. Tribal existence revolves around the so-called “tambaran haus” (house of the spirit), which also houses the sacred buildings and today’s ceremony, in particular initiatives. Construction of these doors is guarded by fierce masks or human skulls and not everyone enjoys the privilege of walking inside. Only men who have passed previously through a certain ritual have the right to attend meetings or ceremonies performed here. Fortunately, in the case of tourists, this rule is overlooked. The interior is decorated with skulls, drum ‘garam’ sculptures, paintings and other objects of worship. The most famous “Haus tambaran” is in town Kanganaman.
Decisions about cannibalism were taking places in the spirit houses. For Papuan, devouring people was a ritual act, a way to protect against the spirit of an enemy killed. Most often, the enemy’s head was not eaten. Tribesmen painted it and it sat over the entrance in the “Haus tambaran” as a symbol of courage. Nowadays, the Papuans who live on the banks of Sepik River have dropped the cannibalism, but there are beliefs in spirits and superstitions (for example, people say that illness is due to an evil spirit). For some tribes the world would be started due to migration crocodile ancestors. During the initiation ceremony, which celebrates the return of these reptiles, young boys make the transition to adulthood.
Their skin on the chest, back and seat is indented in many places to imitate the scars appeared after a crocodile bite. Tradition says that during the ritual, are held in order to test participants’ physical strength and inner discipline, the uninitiated are dragged into the reptile, and then reborn in the human-crocodile. Moreover, in Papua New Guinea saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) measure often reaches 8 m long, given that in other regions of the globe specimens over 6 feet are a rarity. Papua New Guinea is considered a Mecca for scuba diving enthusiasts, who come in the pilgrimage at least once in their life underwater ecosystems to see here. Seabed is full of wrecks, and Barbarian II ship sunk during the Second World War, Blackjack bomber or cargo Dutch Jacob.
Almost all of them are intact, so practitioners can see scuba diving and load weapons with which they were appointed. Only in the waters around the island town of Rabaul Papua New Britain, are about 100 shipwrecks. Praised are also the Papuan mountains. Highland Region, whose southern half was first described by visitors as “Country Papuan wonderland” is among the least explored of the world. Dense tropical forests cover more than half of the island, climbing the mountain peaks even up to 3000 m. In the east is the highest peak in Papua New Guinea, Mount Wilhelm (4509 m), which can be climbed without problems in three days. The vountry is included in the “Circle of Fire of the Pacific”, volcanic eruptions are so frequent as earthquakes, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis.
Among the capital’s dilapidated houses, often built on water, now rises to ten stores modern building. The settlement was first discovered by Europeans in 1873. Captain John Moresby named it in honor of his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. One of the main attractions of the city is the botanical gardens. You will have the opportunity to observe plants across the country (orchids, palms, bamboo) and some animals (kangaroos, parrots, bird of paradise). It is not excluded to see a Papuan wedding, because in these gardens there are special areas where marriage is officiated. Artisans from all over the country offers to sell carved objects, baskets, paintings and other handmade works that can be bought as a souvenir.
The country has a tropical monsoon climate, and temperatures and humidity vary widely from one region to another. From December to March is the rainy period and from June to the arid during September. For April, May, October and November is risky to make a prediction. If you still do a trip of this scale, you are advised to plan in a period from June to September. Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, the second largest in the world, and several others nearby islands. Country area is 462,840 square kilometers and the population is 6 million. New Guinea island was probably first visited by Europeans in 1526-1527. Portuguese explorer Jorge Meneses then called it Ilhas dos Papuan, citing the curly hair of the locals.
In Papua New Guinea 820 indigenous languages are spoken, over 10% of the total number of languages on Earth. Since the age of 5 Papuans chew Betel palm fruit and color to the teeth and tongue in red. Doctors say that because the number of cases of oral cancer usually is high. Port Moresby was declared in 2004, “the city that is the worst to live in” because of the large number of rapes, robberies and murders. The study was conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit analysts and included 130 world capitals. Papua New Guinea is a major consumer of cannabis. Papua New Guinea is a state located in the western Pacific Ocean north of Australia and east of Indonesia. The capital is Port Moresby.
The Island, the second stretch of the world, is separated from Australia by the Torres Strait and Tamura wetted by the Sea of Ceram (west), United Dismissal Antidoron (south-west), Coral Sea (south), Solomon Sea ( east) Bismarck Sea (north-east) and the Pacific (north). High rainfall (high pass on the peaks of 6500 mm / year), feeding a network of abundant waterways with constant flow rates on the northern shore (Ramu, Sepik, Mamberamo) and the southern shore of seasonal oscillations (Purari, Kikori, Fly, Dam).11