Travel Guides: Rome
Located on the river Tiber, the city has a long history over the centuries as the capital of the Roman Republic, Roman Empire, the Roman Catholic Church and modern Italy. Rome has a population of 2,923,000 people. It is the capital of Lazio Region and the Province of Rome. From Rome you can reach any city in Italy by train or bus and the distances from major cities are: 253 km from Bologna, 187 km from Florence, 326 km from Genoa, 389 km from Milan, 144 km from Naples, 647 km from Palermo and 352 km from Venice.
Annual temperatures fall between 3 and 30 degrees C. Rome has a typical Mediterranean-type climate that characterizes the regions of Italy located on the Mediterranean coast. The most pleasant weather is from April to June and from September to mid October; in particular, ottobrata (can be translated as “beautiful October day”) are known as sunny and warm days. In August, the midday temperature often exceeds 32 ° C.
Traditionally, many businesses are closed in August, when the Romans use to go to holiday resorts, but this trend begins to disappear, and the city begins to become fully functional throughout the summer due to tourism growth and changing the working mentality of its population. Maximum temperature in December is in average around 14 ° C.
Rome is a major tourist center. Among the most famous monuments are the Colosseum and Trajan’s Column. Colosseo, which was originally named Flavio Amphitheatre, served during Roman to gladiatorial spectacles; construction was started by Vespasiano, but Tito was the one who inaugurated in the year 80. Other tourist attractions: the Chiesa Santa Maria Maggiore, Basilica di San Pietro, Cappella Sixtina, Fontana di Trevi, Pantheon, Fontana dei Fiori, Foro di Augusto and Foro di Traiano, Arco di Costantino, Castel Sant’ Angelo in Lungotevere, Basilica di San Marco, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Navona, Musei Capitolina, Campidoglio, Palazzo di Montecitorio, Imperial Forum, the Foro Romano, Chiesa di Santa Francesca Romana, Palazzo Borghese, Piazza di Spagna, Trinità dei Monti.
In Rome is also located the Citadel of Vatican. In addition to the influx of tourists, Rome is a magnet for students willing to deepen the culture and history of Italy and not only an important academic center. For those fond of amusement, however, the city has plenty of bars, cafes and nightclubs. The main airport is Leonardo da Vinci Airport, located in Fiumicino, about 35 km from the historic center of Rome. The second is located in Ciampino Airport (about 15 km from Rome).
Rome is the largest and most important city of Italy, an economic and cultural center, a city filled with historical monuments left by the passage of time and has to offer something for all tastes. The Eternal City, City of Seven Hills, La Dolce Vita, all these phrases refer to a single city: Rome – a center of culture, religion and power over whole millennia. Visited by millions of tourists every year, Rome’s main attractions are the Colosseum, the Pantheon, the Vatican and the hundreds of churches and historical monuments.
Rome is crossed from north to south by the river Tiber, and on his left side are the famous seven hills: the Capitol – 50 m, the Quirinal – 52 m, Viminale – 56 m, Esquiline – 53 m, Palatine – 51 m, Aventin – Celian 46 m – 50 m. The town can be divided into districts, the historic center – Old Rome and Colosseo – forming a small percentage of the entire area of Rome.
In the modern city are found the large hotels, shopping centers and restaurants lining the street Via Veneto. In this part of town you can visit the Fontana di Trevi, the Aurelian Walls, the Capuchin Monastery, Le Quattro Fontane, Palazzo Massimo, Baths of Diocletian, and the market Barberini, the Quirinal Palace and several interesting churches. Ancient Rome is the center of medieval and Renaissance with beautiful squares, cathedrals and the famous Pantheon. Colosseo district is the center of this region, the Roman Forum, the Forum of Augustus, the Forum and Trajan’s Market, Capitol Hill and with museums.
According to tradition, on 21 April 753 BC, Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they had been suckled by a she-wolf when they were infants. In fact, the legend of Romulus and Remus probably has its origins in the fourth century BC, and the exact date of the founding of Rome was established by the Roman historian Marcus Terentius Varro in the first century BC.
According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, daughter of the king of Alba Longa Denominator, a mythical city located in the Alban Hills south-east of Rome. Before the birth of twins, Denominator was killed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin, for she would not give rise to rival title. But Rhea was pregnant with his war god Mars, Romulus and Remus being born. Amulius ordered the infants to be drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by the she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.
Later the twins became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors, and after learning their true identity attacked Alba Longa, killed the evil Amulius and restored him to the throne of their grandfather. The twins then decided to found a city on the spot where children had been saved. However, soon came to be reliable and Remus was killed by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him. After Romulus, there were six more kings of Rome; the last three of them are believed to have been Etruscan. Around 509 BC, was born the Roman Republic.
Rome is where the Roman Catholic Church was born, one of the most powerful religious communities in human history. Here, in the year 1200 Innocent II founded the papal secular state, followed by the Vatican City as sovereign state. The city of Rome today is the result of a long and ridden past – after the great migrations, in the centuries XIV – XV city population had fallen to 22,000. Only the review of the 1870 population counts 221,000 inhabitants. After the Second World War has been a massive increase in population, reaching 3 millions today.
The historic city center is dominated by the traditional “Seven Hills of Rome”: Capitol Hills, Palatine, Viminale, Quirinal, Esquiline, Celian and Aventine. Tiber flows south through Rome, the center is located where facilitates crossing the Tiber Island. They remained standing large parts of the old city walls. Servian Wall was built twelve years after Gauls sacked the city in 390 BC, included most of the hills and Celian Eschilin and the other five in its entirety.
Rome has exceeded its development of Servian Wall, but no other walls were also built up in 270 AC, when Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. They had a length of nearly 19 km, and were the wall Italian royal troops had to break through it to enter the city in 1870. Although relatively small, the old city center contains about 300 hotels and 300 retired, over 200 palaces, 900 churches, Rome’s eight major parks, the residence of the President of the Republic, Parliament house, office city and local government, and many famous monuments.
The ancient city also contains thousands of workshops, offices, bars and restaurants. Millions of tourists visit Rome annually; it is one of the most visited cities in the world. Old city walls limits cover approximately 4% of the 1507 km² of modern municipality. The historic city center is the smallest of Rome’s nineteen administrative zones. The city center is composed of 22 Rioni (districts), one of them, Prati, being practically outside the walls.
Around the city are 35 quartieri urbani (urban areas), and within the city limits are six large suburbs. The “Commune” of Rome, outside the municipal borders, the city doubles the surface itself. The belt highway known as Grande Raccordo Anulare (GRA), draws a huge circle around the capital, about 10 miles from downtown, unlike most Italian highways, the GRA no fee is charged. Circular motorway link roads leading to ancient Rome in antiquity: the Via Flaminia, Via Aurelia, Via Salaria, Via Tiburtina, Via Appia and Via Casilina.
Via Appia connects the modern city center a number of towns known as Castelli Romani. Rome surrounds the Vatican City, an enclave of the Holy See, which is a sovereign state. It hosts Saint Peter’s Square, the Basilica of the correspondent. Free space in front of the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, from 1656 until 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII, as a proper court needs, designed so that a larger number of people can see the pope giving his blessing, either in the middle of the facade of the church, or from a window of the Vatican Palace.
In Vatican is also the prestigious Vatican Library, Vatican Museums with the Sixtine Chapel, Raphael Rooms and other important works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, Giotto, and Botticelli. The list of most important museums and galleries of Rome includes: the National Museum of Rome, the Museum of Roman Civilization, National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, Capitoline Museums, Borghese Gallery Museum, Castel Sant’Angelo and the National Gallery of Modern Art.
Rome Center is surrounded by some large green areas and opulent ancient Roman villas, which are remnants of villas surrounding the papal city. Most were destroyed by real estate speculation in the late nineteenth century. Most notable among those who survived are: Villa Borghese, with a large garden with panoramic view, the English naturalist style of the nineteenth century, with a number of buildings, museums and attractions; Villa Ada, the largest public park with views of Rome; Villa Doria Pamphili, the second largest with an area of 1.8 km²; Villa Torlonia, a splendid example of Art Nouveau mansion that was the Roman residence of Benito Mussolini; Villa Albani, commissioned by Alessandro Cardinal Albani to house his collection of antiquities and Roman sculpture.
Rome, a city full of historical monuments left by the passage of time, has to offer something for all tastes. The largest and most important city in Italy, economic and cultural center is inhabited by over 2.5 million people, which can be added millions of tourists who visit it every year. The main tourist attractions: the Colosseum, the Pantheon, and hundreds of churches and monuments.
Coliseum remains the most famous and largest arena ever built by the Romans. Initiative of its construction was a result of the Emperor Nero as major influences in those days they had gladiator fights. Thus, there was a huge arena for such public performances.
The term derives from the colossal statue Colosseum – 36 meters – who represented the face of Nero god of the sun, once located near the amphitheater, then demolished.
Not only the statue, but also the auditorium was a grand sight. In the form of an ellipse with major axis of 186 m, 150m short axis covered an area of 520 m and a height of 55m, providing jobs for about 50,000 spectators. Foundation that was built was 12 feet thick.
To build something like this was even a challenge for the unsurpassed Roman builders. It required – among many other construction materials – tens of thousands of tons of marble (brought from nearby Tivoli) and nearly 300 tons of iron to bind the blocks together.
As a precedent in modern prefabricated materials, many of the parts of the Colloseum were built elsewhere and brought to the arena construction site for assembly. This method allowed an accelerated pace which led to the construction of the building in just seven years. With absolutely perfect proportions, the Pantheon was considered in antiquity as the “Miracle of Rome.” Findings remained valid until now, because this miracle is proud, just as Adriano was built in 1900 years ago.
This temple is a great example of one of the largest Roman inventions: the dome. With a diameter of 43.5 meters – the equivalent distance between shoes and torch the Statue of Liberty – Pantheon‘s dome remained until the 15th century the biggest building of its kind in the world. The building is a perfect hemisphere, with a height and diameter equal. A structure of this type was feasible at that time only because of another Roman invention, concrete.
Using pumice mixed into concrete, the builders of Rome have created an incredibly easy rolling and durable building. It was shaped in a mold which is narrow, ranging from 6.7 meters thick at the base of the dome at its peak only 0.6 meters. Church of Santa Maria Maggiore is one of the four main churches in Rome, built in 352 after Christ and dedicated to St. Mary. The Church was built after to the Pope Liberius appeared Virgin Mary in a dream, which urged the government to make such a construction.
Sant’ Angelo Castle – The building, originally built as a mausoleum for Emperor Hadrian, is a strange building, circular, massive, which is reached across one of the most beautiful bridges in the world: Pont Sant’ Angelo, created by architect Bernini. In the sixth century was transformed into a papal fortress, is connected by underground passages from the Vatican. There were few Pontiffs who have felt the need to use the secret passage in times of tribulation.
Today, the mausoleum is an interesting museum, especially as it is known that here was a place where Tosca committed suicide, evoked by Puccini subsequently. Headquarter of municipal authorities, Capitol Hill was the governmental center of old Rome and is the geographical center of the city today. The most beautiful view you can admire the night, when it is deserted. The market was designed by Michelangelo in 1583. It is also bordered by three buildings designed by the famous Renaissance artist: Palazzo Nuovo and Palazzo dei Conservatives, which together are home to the Capitoline Museums, Palazzo and Senatorio.
Bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which is in the center of the square is a copy made by old photographs. The original that dated of the end of II century AC was severely affected by pollution and pigeons, being removed in 1981. After it was restored was exhibited in the Palazzo Nuovo.
Vatican, Holy Seat – There are many religions that have a state, but Catholicism is not just a religion. Holy Seat – Vatican – is probably the world’s richest independent state, an impressive collection of priceless treasures of art to compensate for the total lack of natural resources. For art lovers, the Vatican is the supreme center, housing universally known treasures, from the Sixtine Chapel built by Bernini in the famous market.
The Fountain of Wishes – A splendor – Fontana di Trevi was built by architect Salvi in 1735 and ended in 1762. This fountain is a perfect example of rococo style with dramatic effects – marble aquatic creatures, dominated by an impressive Oceanus. The water source comes from the Acqua Vergine, so called because, according to legend, a virgin has revealed the source of thirsty soldiers. The story is carved right on Oceanus. It says you have to throw a penny in the fountain to make sure that you will return to Rome, but that’s offering throwing wishes made true.
Market Navonna -Piazza Navona is one of the most famous and most beautiful squares of Rome. Great, full of terraces and artists who paint outdoors, Piazza Navona has no less than three wells. The Fontana dei Quattro Fiume is largest (Fountain of Four Rivers). Each of the four statues that decorate this time is a river on many different continents: the Nile, Ganges, Danube and Amazon. The other two wells are in north Fontana di Nettuno and Fontana del Moro market in the south. Here in winter it is organized one of the largest Christmas fairs in Europe.
Italian cuisine is one of the most famous worldwide and is characterized by a wide variety of products used, as well as a great regional diversity. Pasta, pizza and various types of risotto are consumed worldwide today, but the Italians are in fact much more varied. Pasta – tortellini (ring-shaped), tagliatelle (ribbon shaped) and Green Lasagna (version plus spinach lasagna).
Parmigiano Reggiano is a type of Italian cheese, found worldwide and known to us as the parmesan. Pesto – famous Italian sauce, prepared in restaurants around the world, was created in the region of Liguria. It contains the essential ingredients basil pesto, garlic, parmesan, sheep’s cheese and olive oil. Risotto – Italian specialty, preferred particularly in northern and central regions. It is used a particular type of rice quality oil or butter and then cooked by adding successive small quantities of hot water.
Rice can be used in a variety of recipes, cooking seafood or vegetables, plus sour cream and spices, including saffron famous. Risotto is a staple food in Milanese cuisine, which is the most well prepared (the famous “risotto alla Milanese”). Milan is famous for panettone – a kind of very soft bread filled with raisins and candied fruit. Panettone is now popular throughout Italy and is eaten especially at Christmas. Pizza – home recipe for Neapolitan pizza is today present in all countries as a symbol of globalization.
Authentic Neapolitan pizza contains mozzarella, peppers, onions, sausage, anchovies and tomato sauce and is loved everywhere. Gnocchi – similar to meatballs, made from a mixture of flour and potatoes, boiled in salted water, plus cheese. Lasagna – Italian specialty made of layers of pasta, cheese and sauce. Type varies depending on recipe cheese: mozzarella or parmesan.
Traditional Holidays: April 25 – Independence Day; May – Rome Tennis Tournament; June-September – Estate Romana; June 29 – St. Peter public holiday – solemn ceremonies are held in St. Peter’s Basilica and other churches in the country; June – Flower Festival; September – Notte Bianca: a non-stop night of entertainment with shops, bars, restaurants and cafes open, concerts and performances throughout the Italian capital; October – Rome Film Festival.11