Travel Guides: San Marino
Republic of San Marino is one of the smallest independent countries in Europe and worldwide, an enclave situated in central Italy.
San Marino is a republic with a parliament with 60 members, with the Grand General Council General and two heads of state: Reggenti Captains who are in office for six months each. It is located on the Italian peninsula, near the Adriatic coast. It has an area of 60 sq km and 30,000 inhabitants. Until 1300, San Marino belonged to manor of the Diocese of Mhgy, based in San Leo, part of the Papal State. This fact is justified by a document issued at the Franciscan Monastery of Saint Ignea, close to San Leo. This document presents San Marino to equal rank with the other small towns in the valley of Marechia.
Together they started a fight against the domination of the bishops, for the abolition of feudal oppression and to end the tribute. There is however a big difference. San Leo Maiolo and Talamello and are led by the landowners, who consider tribute exemption a privilege, while at the San Marino was regarded as a right. Such rights can be achieved through determination, tenacity and determination. According to the residents of San Marino this right was given by their Saint, at the convent of St. Anastasio Valley in 1296. They do not pay tribute, because they never did. They were released by their Saint.
“Nemini tener” means “depend on no one”. “Nemini tener” means “freedom” in the medieval language. This Spirit, Marinus is a Dalmatian stone carver, who crossed the Adriatic with his colleagues of faith and work, at the time of Emperor Diocletian to escape persecution. Here he built with his own hand from foundation to roof tiles of stone, a stone chapel. A stone building strong as his faith is eternal. As a symbol of faith and the work he has carved a mountain outside of the bed rock of stone. Legend says he died on September 3, 301 leaving the legacy to the: the mountain, the stone work and the belief, later called freedom.
Around the chapel of promise the land is cultivated by a simple and poor community, but believing in God. The land at the foot of the mountain is rocky, which barely exceeds the amount of seed and fruit that can be grown with difficulty: broken, soaked, and soaked with sweat. Rivers and roads go very far. These people were isolated from the world and were used to stand on their own. Ignore by the others, they are convinced that there is no obligation to others: “Nemini tener” Montefeltro is a battleground for the papal armies and armies of the king. The most powerful of these times had nothing to do but to fight through these mountains (St. Leo). The population built along the river Marecchia, a rough stone wall overwhelmed as to fend off hordes of murderous, marauding soldiers.
These walls have confirmed their decision to live alone. Maiolo, Talamello, every man for himself, each in their own colors. Almost immediately unleashed bands break these walls, but not the Titano. This simple fortification resists. Men begin rigorous religious and conscientious leadership of the community, based on a contract related to the holy chapel. The population of Titano multiplies. The promise chapel becomes a church, the main church of the community and neighboring villages. The wide fortification ensures complete safety, and the church provides religious circumstances and also the idea of freedom inherited from Marinus.
Over the next two centuries these beliefs unite and strengthen the entire community, and bind the mountain. A property deed dated from 1243 shows next to the bishop, other community representatives, as Filippo da Sterpeto and Oddone di Scarito. Then they were called consuls, today they are called captain commanders. People issue state laws, of the joint organization, although the links are still under feudal episcopate of San Leo. In the rest of the world is the war between Guelfs and Ghibellins. Rimini is on the hand of Guelfs allied with the pope and led by Malatesta court. At Urbino, the Ghibellins allied with the emperor belong to Montefeltro. San Marino is among them. A commune allies with Montefeltro to free from the bishop. But this goal is achieved only a century later, when the pope is transferred to Avignon. First of all, between the walls is occupied the residence of the bishops. Following this its community refuses him as judge and denies any form of tribute.
Bishop Peruzzi in 1351, finally defeated by Ghibellins, loses San Leo, where was the residence. Thus he has nowhere to escape. The population of San Marino gives refuge, if he signed the document of feudal exempt. Cardinals Anglico and Albronz try to bring the situation under control of the church. San Marino is left alone; it is a mere pawn in the complicated game between Malatesta and Montefeltro families. Montefeltro bands down the valleys of fortification fortress, with flags rose. Malatesta bands doing the same thing in reverse. San Leo, Maiolo and Talamello frequently change their master, but not San Marino. San Marino remains an open area, while reigning around seniority and principalities.
Sigismondo da Rimini and Urbino da Federico organize their territories into small states with splendid courts, where art flourishes and abundant wealth. San Marino is resistant to both. In fact it stresses the difference, and is called “Republic”. Republic means democracy, it is almost an opposition. Defending its decision it is actually an incentive. Residents in the mountains, with eyes open are always ready with polished and sharp weapons to battle the position at the first sound of the bell of Guaita. San Marino has plenty of weapons. Each governor, at the end of six months of government must give the community a crossbow arrow ninth. Residents of San Marino are also good soldiers and good merchants, and had to endure dry years during the famine.
In 1463 Malatesta is in difficulty, together with the pope and Montefeltro. It is attacked by San Marino increasing its territory. Then the fighting ends, opponents put down their arms, the first time they have managed to win. Cardinals arrive at Rimini, but San Marino is not yet out of danger. Now the threat comes from the Romagna, where the cardinal cousins and relatives form an army in order to attack: in 1543 from Santarcangelo and Rimini and in 1549 from Verucchio. Being in front of these new dangers, San Marino asks for help to strengthen the fortifications of Urbino. This requires bond is fixed in writing and public. For four centuries San Marino is defended by Urbino. Some consider whether belonging to the duchy. But in the late seventeenth century, the duchy comes to an end.
The Duke is old and with no heir, and it seems that his fortune will go to church property. It looks like San Marino has no future. Painter Mingucci di Pesaro agrees and shows the pope the country on a water-color, detailing the key issues. He believes that property is belonging to the Duke. But he is wrong. San Marino has to act fast. In 1603 they sent a petition to the Pope for help, to ensure the territory where the duchy of Urbino splits. 30 years later, in 1631, the Duke dies. Rome respects the pact: Urbino and the duchy passes to church property, but San Marino. Meanwhile the population of San Marino identifies the relics of the Saint. They adorn with royal crown, symbol of sovereignty, and make it in writing that the Saint is the founder of their freedom.
No cardinal or pope, at any time of anti-reform can take this crown. San Marino is subordinate to Rome. It’s just a city like many others, a peaceful nest among the mountains which is theirs since the Middle Ages. It is a little more than a city within the Papal State, a small range without reinforcements, without defense. Everywhere is widespread oppression and absolutism. In the Netherlands the situation is less gloomy. In Venice is a small ray of light. In Venice reach news that on a peak in the Apennine Mountains, within the Papal State a community lives of the inhabitants of the mountains that are organized in the country and not depend on anybody. Writers and journalists take the news and want to give blow absolutism, coloring presenting freedom and democracy, rising to a country legend.
The news comes as a shock in this world of absolutism. It passes the Alps and reaches France and the Netherlands. The Netherlands is spreading to the rest of Europe together with a representation that triggers the interest of realism and credibility. Curious, some people want to see with their own eyes. Among them is the English writer Addison, who comes here in the early eighteenth century and finds the spark of ancient freedom of religious belief with a strong population of the mountain. He also noted that the saint is in the middle of the central altar, and anyone who offends the Saint, is punished as if he cursed by God. They talk and write about San Marino. San Marino falls forever in the hearts and minds. The challenge is made. San Marino is now recognized by Europe and the world.
This becomes clear shortly after the Roma community wants to suppress. The pope sent Cardinal Alberoni to use military strategy so as to bring pressure and ecclesiastical authority of the pope in San Marino. Paris, Madrid and Vienna occur. San Marino regains its independence. February 5, 1740 is the day of Saint Agatha. Since then it becomes co-patron of the republic. The world is preparing for revolution; it seems that San Marino already shows the model. Napoleon felt the same. When passing through Italy’s army as an earthquake in 1797, he stops at San Marino to praise it as a model of the republic and freedom. He provides even territorial enlargement – a landlocked, but San Marino refuses cautious. Napoleon conquers Europe taking over everything he likes. The political map of Europe is changing. The former republics of Lucca, Genua and Venice are also subordinated, but not San Marino.
San Marino is an exception that remains and is left as a country, even when contrary to the ideas of the revolution, Napoleon decided to crown. For San Marino, Napoleon is huge generous defending the country and caress San Marino disproportionate gifts. He lets it grow until it becomes a state in the true sense of the word. State which has a place between the nations of the world, changes its ambassadors and signing treaties. “Nemini tener” now for the first time is recognized by the peoples and nations. Napoleon is defeated. The congress of Vienna redraws the map of Italy, San Marino, without touching it. San Marino is surrounded by the Papal State, being inside a very small peninsula but is close to unity.
For liberals the goal is unification of Italy, part of the dream to create a democratic republic. Between them, the popularity of San Marino in 1849 increased to maximum, when their hero Garibaldi with 1000 survivors of the republic of Rome followed by the Austrians takes refuge in San Marino. San Marino is immediately surrounded and they have a choice between unconditional surrender or to fight to the death. San Marino authorities intervened as mediators. A negotiation takes place, and at night leaves Garibaldi, his wife Anita and the most wanted officers to flee. Other medical care is given; they get food, money and refuge. Gratitude and the Liberal Democrats Garibaldi beyond the protection of France led by Napoleon is another crucial thing for San Marino. To unite Italy, Cavour needs Napoleon III, the Garibaldi and the liberals. In 1860 the army ahead at Cavour Piemonte San Marino passes leaving it alone.
The population of Mount Titano breathed easier again. Immediately, they ask Italy to recognize its sovereignty. This Treaty is finally signed in 1862 after the death of Cavour, the Prime Minister Ratazzi, because he needs the help of Garibaldi and Napoleon. San Marino is now a recognized as a political entity. Getting that first acceptance, San Marino searches for others around the Alps. Each treaty is recognition of sovereignty. After 40 years of effort is the extradition treaty signed for criminals, first with Britain, then Holland, Belgium and the USA. In 1908 is made another step in that direction. San Marino is received by the International Institute of Agriculture. For the first time is part of an international organization.
In 1971 are appointed ambassadors and then enter the Council of Europe. It has a place in the CSCE and joins UN the most prestigious organization of all countries in the world. Here, all member nations have equal rights, regardless of the area and geographical location. This is the most relevant expression “Nemini tener”, the idea of freedom, conceived by a small group of residents of Mount Titano, quiet and seclusion, in the first centuries of the Christian Middle Ages, near the abode of a saint. This idea was defended with all means against all, to get recognition of all.
Among other things, San Marino is the oldest republic in the world – was founded, the legend says, in 301 AC by Marinus of Rab, mason by trade, who, fleeing from the fury of anti-Christian by the authorities, took refuge on Monte Titano , where he built a Christian church. Hence, the name and location of the mountain state. Formed in the mountaintop community it went largely unnoticed by history, due to isolation and poverty, too small a prey for the powerful of this world. San Marino people have a real cult of Garibaldi, so do not be surprised if you encounter at every step busts of the unifier: Giuseppe allowed independence even after unification, asylum law and gratitude for the aid they have given the Italian revolutionaries clock their needs.
Like any small country, San Marino lives primarily from tourism, but financial services and good things like expensive wine and cheese bring their contribution to the local budget. Speaking of travel – you can get there by car, highway, or bus from the airport of Rimini and the local currency is the euro. In terms of sights, Republic of the Apennines is famous for the three towers located in the capital of San Marino, located on the three peaks of Monte Titano (the oldest is from the eleventh century, and appear on the emblem of the country) and Grand Prix of San Marino, which it patronizes. There are plenty of interesting things to see and hear.
On 03/02/1992, in New York, San Marino joins the general agreement of UN members.
San Marino is a nation among nations, despite the size which is very, very small. It is a republic with a parliament of 60 members, with the Grand Council General, the two heads of state: Reggenti Captains who are in office for six months each. It is located on the Italian peninsula, near the Adriatic coast. It has an area of 60 sq km and 30,000 inhabitants. On top is the old city, the capital, the government building. The flat land around it looks like the symbol of poverty over the centuries.
It is located in southern Europe, central Italy, near the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It has a low relief, dominated by three peaks of Monte Titano, Notrh Apennines. The highest peak is 755 m. It is crossed by the Marano River, which flows into the Adriatic Sea. Other rivers: Ausa, San Marino. Climate: Mediterranean, with warm winters and sunny summers. Ethnic groups: San Marino people, Italian. Religion: Roman Catholic. Official language: Italian. Currency: Euro. In 1720 Sardinia became an independent kingdom under the house of Savoy, rulers of Piedmont. At the time of Italian unification in 1860, King became King of Sardinia, Italy. Capital: San Marino. Other cities: Fiorentino, La Dogana, Borgo Maggiore.
Administration is divided into nine Castelli (municipalities). Although a small country, there are many things to see: Guards in medieval uniforms; The three towers on the three peaks of Monte Titano; Grand Prix of San Marino State; La Rocca (or Guaita), the oldest tower; Palazzo Publico; State Museum. It is located on the Italian peninsula, near the Adriatic coast. It is recognized by Mount Titano. Once you get to visit these places curiosities Museum which houses a boomerang totally unique. Once you have entered its realm, you think you are in another independent world. The isolated state in the heart of Italy, squeezed between the provinces of Emilia Romagna and Marche, San Marino is the oldest republic in the world and captures a lot of interesting features.
Narrow cobbled streets, filled with souvenir shops, Italian restaurants, all these elements make the San Marino to be the perfect destination for those who want to relax on a holiday in a peaceful atmosphere. I do not know if it’s because the wall surrounding the town of San Marino, but once you entered its realm, you think you went into another world, a world isolated carefree, where time stood still. No matter what the season is visit this place, the atmosphere is the same, but if you want to avoid crowds and large flow of tourists, avoid the summer months – particularly in August, the Italian holiday month. San Marino people are proud of their origins, so that once you have entered in the small state will take care to make you get in their typical atmosphere you can admire the medieval panorama.
From San Marino you can admire the Emilia Romagna area. San Marino area can be reached by plane; it has two airports, a close one in Bologna, located about 50 km or one at Rimini, at only 14 km. San Marino can be reached by car, you can rent one from the airport or the means of transportation there, Rimini-San Marino scheduled at an interval of 15 minutes. In San Marino you do not need the car, the most popular means of transport are walking, cycling and, last but not least, tourist attraction, dating from 1932, the gondola that connects the city of San Marino, who was on top of Mount Titano and the second major city of the republic, Borgo Maggiore. The route offers a superb panorama of the entire region of Emiglia Romagna and the Adriatic Sea.
Gondolas are numbered with numbers 1 and 2, and arrive at an interval of 15 minutes.
If you still need to call a taxi service, the state has seven licensed companies who agree to operate and state in the territories conquered by Italy. The little state has many events taking place here. There have been a lot of events, so each month if documents before you tour the site of the republic will have the opportunity to participate in some of the most interesting events, such as: Medieval Days, an event that celebrates the medieval era. During the events, the city is full of atmosphere of a time: medieval restaurants, locals dressed in period costumes, fairs where you can buy souvenirs with specific of San Marino: stamps, coins, handmade pottery, or even guards uniforms body from the medieval period.
If you have more time take advantage of it and visit the surroundings. Although San Marino is in the midst of the mountains, just 30 km you can sunbathe on the shores of the Adriatic Sea, lying here is one of the most popular sea resorts in Italy, Rimini, the hometown of director Federico Fellini and who is proud not only the coast, but certainly the historic center where you’ll spend almost all day having to visit the Castle Sismondo, who later became a prison, or a gothic cathedral, where are the family graves of Malatesta. Foods cooked in the kitchens of the Mediterranean are similar, but there are some typical local products: Tre Monti cake house (three mountains), but also the culture of wine.
San Marino boasts the oldest Constitution still operating dating back to 1600. The little state is a republic with a parliament of 60 members, with the Grand Council General and two heads of state: Reggenti Capitani, which is based for each six months. On 1 April and October 1 is celebrated a ceremony in San Marino are the two heads of state appointed a large ceremony that takes pride in a ritual that dates back thousands of years. San Marino is an interesting country for many visitors because it has a charged political and historical tradition. Many tourists who come to Italy and staying at the Adriatic Sea do not hesitate to pass through this state. In high season the number of cars increases dramatically, and this causes a problem for the environment. Thus, in the old part of San Marino is low traffic.
The most visited place in the country is the medieval city. In this city is entering through the gate of San Francesco, which dates from the fourteenth century. Several tourist attractions are: the building of Palazzo del Governo (government headquarters), the Basilica del Santo, the church of San Francesco, Piazza della Liberta, Museo di Stato, three castles in the eastern city and regions of Borgo Guaita prison and Borgo Maggiore. EU members have no restrictions in terms of money and goods entering or leaving the country. Foreign currency must be declared if it exceeds 10 000. Means of payment and currency: 1 Euro = 100 cents. There are ATMs and travelers checks that can be exchanged at post offices, banks or official exchange offices.
Major credit cards are accepted in most hotels and restaurants. Transportation: San Marino has a well developed road system. Rimini binds a highway of 23 km. The country does not have a railway system but the nearest station is in Rimini. Nearest international airports: Rimini and Bologna. It is enough to carry your driving license and certificate of registration of the car. It is recommended to have insurance and a green card. The speed limit is 50 km / h in towns, 90 km / h outside towns and 110 km / h on the highway. Alcohol limit is 0.5. Driving is on the right side of the road. Accommodation: selected hotels are available and cheap hosting options. An optimal period for visiting: Peak season is from May to September but most tourists come in July and August. Emergency Numbers: Police: 112, Ambulance: 113.