Travel Guides: Slovenia
Slovenia is a country in Central Europe bordering with Croatia, Hungary, Austria and Italy. The capital is Ljubljana. It is a member of the European Union since 2004.
It is believed that the Slavic tribes, ancestors of today’s Slovenians came on this territory in the 6th century. The Slavic Duchy of Carantania, the first proto-Slovene state and the first Slavic stable state, was formed in the 7th century. In 745, Carantania lost its independence to the French Empire. Many Slavs converted to Christianity. The Freising manuscripts, the oldest written documents in a Slovenian dialect and the first Slavic alphabet documents, date from around 1000. During the 14th century, most of Slovenia’s regions were occupied by the Habsburgs, subsequently becoming part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In 1848 appeared a strong program for a united Slovenia, with the movement “Spring of Nations” in Austria. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Slovenians formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later named (1929) Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After the restoration of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II Slovenia became a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared officially on 29 November 1945. Modern Slovenia was formed on 25 June 1991 after gaining independence from Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined NATO on March 29, 2004 and the European Union on May 1, 2004.
The Slovenian President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years. The Slovene Parliament is bicameral. The National Assembly, Državni zbor, consists of 90 seats of which two are reserved for representatives of the Hungarian and Italian minorities. The National Council, Državni svet, consists of 40 seats and represents the economic, social and professional interests locally. Parliamentary elections are held every four years.
According to the Encyclopedia of Slovenia, the historical regions of Slovenia follow the lines laid down for the divisions within the Habsburg Empire (Carniola, Carinthia, Stiria, and Seaside). Their subdivisions are: Upper Carniola (Gorenjska), Stiria (Štajerska), Prekmurje, Carinthia (Koroška), Inner Carniola (Notranjska), Lower Carniola (Dolenjska), Goriška, Slovenian Istria (Slovenska Istra). The last two make up the Coastal Region (Primorska). White Carniola (Bela Krajina), part of Lower Carniola, is often regarded as an independent region. In the same situation is Zasavje, part of Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola and Stiria.
More European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Dinaric Alps, the Pannonian Plain and the Adriatic Sea. The highest peak is Triglav (2864 m), average altitude is 557 meters. About half of the country (10,124 km²) is forested, so Slovenia is the third most forested country in Europe after Finland and Sweden. The climate is coastal sub-Mediterranean, alpine in the mountains and continental with hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys in the east. The average temperature is -2 ° C in January and 21° C in July. The average precipitation is 1,000 millimeters from the shore, in the Alps up to 3,500 millimeters, 800 millimeters in the southeast and 1,400 millimeters in the central area.
Slovenia is a developed country with a high income economy. The country has the highest GDP per capita of the former communist countries of Europe – $ 21.567 in 2005 over that of Greece or Portugal. Slovenia has a relatively high rate of inflation (3.6% in 2004) but is now comparable with the average of the European Union, which Slovenia is a member organization in 2004. The country’s economy grew by 4.6% in 2004, after growing more slowly in 2003, only 2.5%. Although the country has a stable and prosperous economy, there are various reforms, which if not done will be implemented soon give rise to questionable support of the Slovenian economy in the future. After 2000, various companies in the banking sector, communications and public utilities were privatized. Restrictions on foreign investment are slowly abolished.
UNESCO World Heritage List included the following facilities in Slovenia: Caves of Škocjan (1986). Regions: Julian Alps – mountains on the border with Italy; Ljubljana – the capital and surroundings; Coast and Karst Plateau – Adriatic coast and a limestone region located on the border between Slovenia and Italy; Lower Stiria – Maribor, Pohorje and surroundings; Savinjska – alpine plateaus; Pomurje – towns in the North East River Mura; Lower Carniola – Dolenjska and Bela Krajina; Upper Carniola – Kranj and Kamniške Alps-Savinjska; Posavje – the region downstream of the Sava and Krka rivers; Zasavje – Slovenia’s center, eats of the capital.
Cities: Ljubljana – the capital city; Izola – port; Idrija – Slovenia’s oldest city with a history of over 500 years; Celje – one of the oldest cities; Kranj; Maribor – the second largest city in Slovenia; Nova Gorica; Novo Mesto; Brežice – medieval town near the center of the largest spa in the country; Piran – port; Portorož – Beaches, casinos and tourism; Ptuj – one of the oldest cities in Slovenia; Slovenj Gradec; Velenje; Koper – industrial port town with an old Venetian aspect.
Slovenian ancestors came from eastern parts of Europe and inhabited more the northern territories than those currently inhabited in the 6th century AC. They have formed a state called Carantania (Karantanija in Slovenian), which was an early example of parliamentary democracy in Europe. The leader (knez in Slovene) was elected by popular vote. Carantanians were later defeated by the Bavarians and Franks who subordinated them. They were Christianized, but they have retained many pagan rituals in religion, and above all they preserved their native language. The Slovene lands were part of the Roman Empire under the Austrian Habsburg dynasty until 1918, when Slovenia joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new South Slavic state ruled by Serbian dynasty Karadjordjević called Kingdom of Serbs, Croatian and Slovenian (Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev in Slovenian), and the name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929.
Slovenia was invaded and occupied by Germans, Italians and Hungarians. Civil wars took place between pro-Communist force (partisan) and anti-Catholics Communists. In the victory of Partisans followed the massive massacres and exodus of anti-communists members. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic in the reorganization of Yugoslavia that even if it was communist, distanced itself from the Soviet bloc. Dissatisfied with the power exerted upon them by Serbs, Slovenia gained independence in 1991, with minimal bloodshed. In 2004, Slovenia joined the European Union and NATO. Recently, Slovenia adopted in 2008, the European single currency, euro.
Independence: June 25, 1991 (from Yugoslavia); National holiday: Statehood Day, 25 June (1991), Independence Day and Harmony Day, 26 December (1990). The Constitution was adopted on December 23, 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, strong economy and a stable democracy in Slovenia was a leading example among the EU and NATO members. For a country so small, Slovenia enjoys a rich culture. Two famous names with whom you often meet are national poet France Prešeren (1800-1849), who wrote (among other things) the national anthem of Slovenia and the architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957), who designed the modern bridge in Ljubljana Tromostovje, and buildings for half of the country.
A strip of coastline on the Adriatic Sea, the Alps, plateaus and valleys are crossed by rivers to the east; in the south is the central plain with wetlands. In the south-west is the Karst plateau (hence the designation of karstic plateau). Natural hazards: floods and earthquakes; Highest point: Triglav 2864 m; Lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m. Accessibility – Slovenia is an EU member and also joined the Schengen agreement, which means that you can enter the country only with your card. Bus station Ljubljana (Ljubljana Postaja Avtobusna) offers comprehensive information about services. In Ljubljana are Slovenia’s main international airport and the center airline Adria Airways, which flies in most major European cities and in some Baltic countries. The cheapest way to enter the city is through easyJet’s, however, with daily flights from London.
But there are several options worth exploring. Ryanair has three flights a week from London to Maribor, and from Dublin to Croatia. Another airline convenient, especially for the western part of Slovenia, is the Italian airport of Trieste, which lays just an hour drive from Ljubljana highway. Klagenfurt, Austria, is also an option. Slovenia is well connected with Austria and Croatia via railroads. The most popular routes are from Vienna and Villach (if good weather, the route passes by the Julian Alps and the view is superb), Budapest and Zagreb. All lines pass through the capital city. Since April 2008, the Italian company trains cut the few routes during the day crossing the borders, even though they still appear on many international schedules. Contact the Slovenian Railways to be aware of new regulations.
There are some international routes, and special offers for some destinations, so it would be better to be informed before. There are some special purpose for which tickets are scarce, which means that they can finish fast, but are usually cheaper, such as the route Ljubljana – Prague, 58 euros with return (normal price would be somewhere around € 200 Euros). For organized tours in Slovenia, called “City Star” tickets, have an open date, but usually most require staying over the weekend, and are often the cheapest options. Also, watch the discounts obtained by the Youth Card Euro, in most international guidelines. The same card is valid on all domestic lines with a 30% discount. Quality and convenience in international trains differ on routes. Unwritten law is that everything north of Ljubljana is going pretty good.
Trains usually have restaurants, clean and modern toilets. The same can not be guaranteed for lines going south (as Belgrade, Sofia, Skopje and Thessaloniki), so make sure that you have supplies of food and drink with you. Water and coffee is at your discretion at any train sleeping compartment. Slovenia has an excellent highway system linked with neighboring countries: From Austria – Vienna, Graz, Sentilj, Maribor; Villach, Tunnel Karawanke, Jesenice; Villach, Wurzenpass, Kranjska Gora, Podkoren; Klagenfurt, Loiblpass, Ljubelj, Kranj. From Italy – Venice, Trieste, Koper; Venice, Nova Gorica, Gorizia; Tarvisio, Ratece, Kranjska Gora, Jesenice. There is a ferry between Venice and Izola, which operates on a irregularly program during the summer (for hourly access). The trip lasts for two hours and a half.
Slovenia is a small country – there are no domestic flights by plane – typically transport is fast and with minimal effort. However, fleet growth has brought with it more difficult times for public transport, some bus routes have been removed. Saturday services are rare and almost nonexistent on Sunday. Slovenian Railways operated by Slovenske železnice (SZ) are well branched, but there are gaps in the system. To get to almost any destination in the country must make a stopover in Ljubljana. The trains are usually cheaper by 30% than buses. Purchase your ticket before boarding the train because an additional fee is required if the purchase is made from wire. Also a supplement of 1.20 Euros is required for any route with InterCity. A lot of money and effort have been invested in upgrading the railway system and the purchase of new trains, but most stations are not very welcoming.
Political system: parliamentary republic; Area: 20,273 sq km; Capital: Ljubljana; Population: 2019406 (June 30, 2007); Official language: Slovene; Climate: Sub-Mediterranean for coastal zones, continental hinterland and highest alpine regions; Average temperatures: July 21 ° C and in January -2 ° C; Local Time: Central European Time GMT +1; Currency: euro. Holidays: 1 and 2 January New Year; Prešeren Day February 8th, Slovenian Culture Day; Sunday and Monday of Easter; April 27 Uprising Day; 1 and 2 May Labor Day; June 25 National Day of Slovenia; August 15 Assumption; October 31 Reformation Day; November 1 All Saints Day; December 25 Christmas; December 26 Independence Day.
Banks exchange foreign currencies and traveler’s checks in local currency and current accounts that are possible to send orders and transfer payments. Operating hours on weekdays is from 9:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 17:00. Exchange rates may also perform at the exchange rate on the receptions of hotels or major shopping centers. You can find daily currency exchange rates on the website of the National Bank of Slovenia. The operation schedule for sores is continuing weekdays from 8:00 to 19:00, Saturdays from 8:00 to 13:00 (some stores until 21:00), and certain shops on Sundays and public holidays. Payment is in euros, most shops accept credit cards: American Express, Diners, Master Card – Euro Card and Visa.
Post Offices – Operating hours on weekdays is from 8:00 to 18:00 and Saturday from 8:00 to 12:00. Evening and Saturday afternoon are only open post offices in larger cities. Public phones operate with magnetic cards and can be purchased at post offices or newsagents. International prefix for outgoing calls is 00, and the prefix for international calls to Slovenia is 386. There is signal for mobile phones in almost all the country, and Slovenian mobile operators have signed contracts with major European and international operators. Electricity: power is at 220 V, 50 Hz. The water is potable and safe to drink throughout the country.
Due to the varied climate – Mediterranean coasts, the Alps and Karavanke alpine and continental temperate north-east of the country – is recommended suitable clothing for each season. Average temperature in July exceeds 20 ° C and in January is around -20 ° C. Summer can be very hot in the coastal area and very cold in the winter in the mountains. We recommend checking the weather forecast before you arrive in Slovenia.
Important phone numbers: Police, 113; Fire: 112; Emergency first aid: 112; MAS – Motorists Association of Slovenia, 1987. You will get to know better the country if you visit it by car. You can reach Slovenia via one of the border crossings with Italy, Austria, Hungary or Croatia or rent a car with one of the car rental agencies. Highways in Slovenia are good and appropriately marked to find parking roadsides, motels offering overnight accommodation and hotels.
On the territory of Slovenia is required: To use lights on daytime meeting; To use seat belts on all seats available; Approved use of motorcycle helmets for motorcycle drivers and passengers; Use of fog lights is permitted if the visibility is reduced by more than 50 percent. On main roads the majority of gas stations are open around the clock. Unleaded gasoline is available in all stations. Blood alcohol level – Drivers in categories A and B may have a maximum 0.5 g of alcohol per 1000 grams of blood. In Slovenia, the Association provides services to motorists in Slovenia for 24 hours. There are 17 technical centers in larger towns and drivers that have problems can call the phone number 1987; highway emergency telephones are located from 2 to 2 km. You can reach Slovenia and neighboring countries by bus. International coach is well organized and relatively inexpensive. Schedules and other information can be found on the Internet.
Modern and comfortable trains reach almost all major tourist destinations. Links to railways abroad are excellent: you can reach Slovenia via direct routes from Italy, Austria, Hungary and Croatia. Traveling by train is convenient and cheap. National air transport company of Slovenia, Adria Airways offers regular flights to most major European cities. Ljubljana is linked to Frankfurt, Munich, Vienna, Zurich, Brussels, Paris, Barcelona, London, Dublin, Manchester, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Moscow, Split, Skopje, Sarajevo, Ohrid, Tirana, Tel Aviv, Podgorica, Priština and Istanbul.
The Port of Piran is a starting point for excursions on the Adriatic Sea. On Slovenia’s Adriatic coast there are modern marinas in Portorož, Koper and Izola (Izola is also in a particular yacht center for technical services) available to nautical tourists. All marinas provide fuel; food and fuel stations are also publicly available in Piran and Izola. The two are open year round from Koper and Piran maritime borders, and from May to October operating at the frontier of Izola. Customs formalities are minimal and correspond to European standards. All those who need visas to visit Slovenia can obtain them from the Embassy or Consulate of Slovenia in the country of origin. The transport of goods between EU countries is exempt from taxes; regulations are the same in all European Union countries. Restrictions apply only to tobacco products and alcohol, the amount is not subject to duty is limited.
In every city in Slovenia are higher medical centers open from 7.00 to 19.00 on weekdays. Due to the European single market principle, Slovenia has dropped the possibility to recover VAT on national borders, because this form of tax exemption no longer exists between European Union countries. Citizens from countries not members of the European Union should have special forms for goods purchased, completed by the sellers. The form must be stamped by the border customs office of exit from a European Union member state. Fees will be collected by the institutions listed in the form of purchases excluding VAT.
To cross the border between European Union countries (for ex. for non-commercial transport of pet animals, where animals are back with owners in the country of origin) owners of dogs, cats and ferrets must have a European Union passport pet containing a confirmation of vaccination against rabies and the animals must be marked in the prescribed manner. For some members of the European Union special rules apply (United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Sweden), details are available at the Veterinary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia or local veterinary institutions. For other pets (rodents, reptiles, amphibians, aquarium fish, birds, etc.) rules differ from country to country, so owners should seek information in the country or on the Internet. For non-commercial importation of animals from non-EU countries (not EU members), dogs, cats and ferrets can travel with the veterinary certificates issued in accordance with Commission Decision 2004/203/ES, the same rules apply to other animals in accordance with the provisions on non-commercial transport of animals between countries.
Because the rules apply to individual groups of countries, information can be found on the Internet faster.
Families, businessmen and all those who enjoy active vacations will have a lot to discover in Slovenia. People who can enjoy the tranquility of hiking the mountains, climbers and athletes who practice skiing, canoeing, rowing, fishing, hunting, golf, horse riding and many others can enjoy their favorite sports in a variety of landscapes. A large part of Slovene cuisine stems from three main cultures – the CPR, the Alpine and Mediterranean. Oldest Slovenian dishes contain flour and cereal grits. The most popular is made with bread štruklji on holidays, today is woven or has a form of a crown that Slovenes prepare in 70 different ways, filled with sweet compositions, meat or vegetables and žganci. A specialty is truly the Slovenian potica, a dessert prepared on occasion, also released a variety of fillings.
The country is a true wine country. Slovenia is divided into three wine regions: Primorska, Podravje and Posavje regions and there are 14 districts with recognizable features. Primorje region is famous for its original red and white wines, the region is the area of origin Posavje Slovenian Specialty – Cviček; the region is the country Podravje Renski Rizling wines, Sauvignon and Rulandec, the excellent sparkling wine and Traminec Fri Peninnah. The excellent geographical location of the country, its varied picture, numerous opportunities to spend active holidays and gastronomic offer the highest quality wines and are all highlighted in its people: friendly, honest, cheerful, kind. Slovene identity was developed in conjunction with the Slovenian language spoken by only two million people and has been preserved a dynamic cultural life. Slovenians still have a very real personal contact that gives great value. The hospitality and the very rich part of the world are shared with the guests.
Most of the Julian Alps are in the Triglav National Park. The famous resort of Bled is situated on the edge of the park. Bled is considered a tourist paradise with numerous recreational opportunities, a conference room, a casino and a golf course. Bohinj is the starting point for numerous mountain hikes, Lake Bohinj and Bohinjska Bistrica is a paradise for lovers of aquatic activities. In the surroundings there are ski slopes and trails for cross-country skiers also facilities for mountain biking, paragliding, sport climbing, and many more. Kranjska Gora attracts visitors with outdoor recreational sports in summer and winter with excellent slopes for winter sports and other activities. In the nearby Planica city, is sheltered by mountains two thousand feet high, the best ski jumping athletes compete here each year.
Soča valley cities, Emerald Valley, Kobarid, Tolmin attract those seeking peace, but also lovers of adrenaline. There are numerous opportunities to practice water sports. You also know this valley through sports as paragliding, hang gliding or mountain biking. The Slovenian Coast has a length of 46.6 km. The towns of Piran, Izola and Koper, located along the coastline, attract tourists with their medieval air. The historic city center Koper is considered one of the most picturesque places in the northern peninsula of Istria. Izola is a coastal city with a long tradition of fishing. The tourist area is concentrated in the east, the bay Simonov zaliv, where there is a seaside resort with facilities for swimming, with hotels and restaurants. The whole town of Piran, an old seaport, is protected as a cultural and historical monument and has preserved the medieval layout with narrow streets and compact houses, which rises in steps from the plains to the hills, giving the whole area a typical Mediterranean atmosphere.
Portorož is a tourist city that boasts the longest tourist tradition in Slovenia and offers comfortable hotels and modern swimming pools, restaurants and events, and there is an acclaimed conference center. Because of limestone and water, karst has two faces – one surface and one below. On the surface they create karst sinkholes, hulls, springs, karst windows and Polje (Planinsko, Cerkniško Polje) and numerous pots lie beneath the erosion and karst caves – it is said that the Slovene Karst region is the most beautiful place in the underground world. In Slovenia there are more than a hundred caves and karst erosion pans and 20 treasures of limestone that can be visited due to being endangered karst waters are opened for tourists. Most are visited Postojna Cave, Škocjan caves, which were included in the UNESCO list of cultural and natural heritage in 1986, and Črna JAMA Pivka cave, cave Križna JAMA, etc. Vilenica. Slovenian Karst region is also the site of origin of the noble Lipizzaner horses.
Lipizzaner horses from Lipica are where the horse farm was developed by more than four centuries. Today is a recreation center that has a riding school, known as an international center for sports riding event. Ljubljana has about 276,000 inhabitants and is considered a city that fits all. Despite being a medium-sized European city, it retains small town friendliness, while having all the characteristics of a metropolis. Here, the meeting point of eastern and western cultures, the old is harmoniously intertwined with the new. Ljubljana is a cultural city, home to many theaters, museums and galleries, and boasts one of the oldest philharmonic in the world. It is a city where concerts and other events take place, a science center or university and a city that hosts many business meetings. In the warmer months of the year, numerous cafes and restaurants move outdoors, on the riverbanks Ljubljana and in the markets of the old town.
Due to geographical location, Ljubljana also represents an ideal starting point to discover the beautiful and diverse beauty and attractions of Slovenia. Pohorje covers an area of approximately 1,000 square kilometers and is covered by coniferous forests in some areas have developed ski centers (Areh, Rogla, Kope) and other parts of Pohorje offers extensive trails for hikers and lovers biking and horseback riding. Pohorje is also visited by lovers of parachuting, gliding, balloon trips and those wishing to discover the forests and clean waters. Maribor, with nearly 115,000 inhabitants, is considered the second largest city in Slovenia. Here are the oldest vineyards in the world, growing on the river Drava more than four centuries. Over the Drava River is Lent, a picturesque and lively town, famous for its multicultural Festival Lent.
Large vineyards, which start up over the hills on the outskirts of Maribor are interwoven with more than 50 km of roads of wine. On these roads are wine shops and tourist farms. Maribor, with its conference halls of Habakuk Congress Centre, is an important congress in Slovenia. The development and recognition of Slovenian health resorts was encouraged by the wealth of unspoiled natural resources of the country. The most important are thermal waters with temperatures varying qualities (from 32-73 degrees Celsius) and mineral waters (Donat Mg Radenska famous Three Hearts), followed by sea water and salt water, and inorganic and organic peloizii Mediterranean climates, Pannonian and sub. In fifteen Slovenian spas, united under the common slogan “By nature for Health”, have developed the most modern tourist offers health and new programs to maintain health and prevent disease.
In the spa resorts you can spend holidays with family, do something good for your body and soul and improve your physical and mental condition. This is possible due to health and recreational centers where you can swim, walk, do exercises on various equipment and playing fields, where you can play golf and tennis, bowling, ride, ski, practice cycling – and at the same time to learn to live healthy. The cities of Ljubljana, Bled and Portorož of Slovenia are becoming increasingly present on the international conferences for over twenty years despite strong competition. They distinguished themselves as attractive destinations for business meetings, scientific, and other intergovernmental and international business events. Events in Slovenia have their tradition of the Holy Alliance in 1821 when Congress was held in the city of Ljubljana. Today Slovenia has many modern conference centers, large or small, each year hosting the participants from all over the world.
Casinos and entertainment tourism in Slovenia is an important and attractive tourist offer. It has its origin in almost forty years of tradition and is based on tourism and casinos that offer competition. Besides offering casinos, there are quality hotel services, a wide gastronomic offer, shopping and recreational opportunities, cultural events, dance and spectacle, fashion shows and beauty contests also business conferences and meetings. The whole program of products stems from the concept of casino gaming, leisure and relaxed atmosphere. In Slovenia there are now twelve casinos and entertainment centers. The offer is mainly located in the famous tourist resorts and larger towns. The first casino was opened almost 40 years ago in Portorož and was followed by a casino in Bled. In 1984, with the advent of a new casino in Nova Gorica, has developed a new trend in Slovenian casinos.
In the next ten years have been opened new and different casinos at Rogaška Slatina, Maribor, Lipica, Ljubljana, Kranjska Gora and Otočec. The largest and also the newest entertainment center is “Pearl” from Nova Gorica HIT, company that is developing a new business philosophy in the industry in Slovenia. There are many possibilities for overnight accommodation. Most accommodation is open all year round. Hotels are classified by international standards – from one to five stars. These categories correspond with other hotels in Western Europe. Each year in Slovenia is published a price list of hotels, which you can obtain from the Slovenian representatives offices abroad, travel agencies in Slovenia and the Slovenian Tourist Office. Tourists can find accommodation in the younger Youth Hostels in Bled, Ptuj, Piran, Nova Gorica, Pliskovica not Krasu and Ljubljana.
Private rooms can be rented in the larger tourist towns. They can be reserved in advance through various travel agents or directly. Rooms are available for one, two or three stars. Camping sites are ideal starting points for those who wish to plan their own holidays, those who love sports and recreation and, most importantly, those who wish to spend their holiday in clean and unspoiled nature. Since 2001 the camping places have become members of EFCO & HPA (European Federation of organizations of camping & holiday parks associations) and were equipped in accordance with European standards. In larger camps boxes are recommended to be reserved in advance. Farms, which offer accommodation – away from the crowds and the daily rush -, can be found throughout Slovenia. The category is marked with signs representing Apple: hostels with shared rooms and toilets are simply furnished an apple, and well-furnished hostels with their own toilets and four apples.
Slovenia is a small and charming country, an interesting combination of Bavaria, the Mediterranean Riviera, the Danube, Venice and the Balkans. It won independence in 1991 and began relatively easy to grow, letting the hostility to political events around them. Geographically, it is a beautiful country, with the Alps ascending the lofty and mirrored in the surrounding crystal-clear lakes, plus the alpine forests, vineyards and orchards, beaches and landscaped islands. Ljubljana is the capital city, and is distinguished by the Baroque style, and is strategically located just two hours drive away from Venice and three hours from Vienna, so that those who visit the great European cities in the itinerary can include this unique city.
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija Slovenian Socialistična) was a socialist state, a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1963 until 1990 when Slovenia became a communist infrastructure democratic constituent republic within Yugoslavia. Before 1963, the official name was the People’s Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija Ljudska). On 8 March 1990, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia was succeeded by the Republic of Slovenia, which was a constituent country of the Yugoslav Socialist Federal Republic by 25 June 1991, when it declared independence.
In March 1990, the Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia approved a number of constitutional changes that allowed the transition to a democratic system. Socialist infrastructure was largely dismantled and free elections were held in April the same year. Parliamentary elections were won by the opposition coalition led by dissident Jože Pučnik, DEMOS. Meanwhile, Milan Kučan former president of the League of Communists of Slovenia (ZKS) was elected President of the Republic. Democratically elected Parliament has proposed the Lojze Peterle, Slovenian Christian Democrat party leader, Prime Minister, which ended 45 years of rule by the Communist Party. During this period, Slovenia has kept the old flag and the old emblem, and most of the previous symbols, so were expected to create new ones that would be published after independence. The old national anthem, Naprej Zastava Zdravljica slave was already replaced in March 1990.
On December 23, 1990, was held a referendum for independence in Slovenia, where 92.3% of voters (88.5% of the total electorate) voted for the secession of Slovenia from Yugoslavia. On June 25, 1991, independence was proclaimed by the Slovenian Parliament. After a brief Ten Day War, the Army assured the Slovenian independence, the end of independence was recognized by the international community. Slovenia is one of the smallest countries in the world, located in central Europe, stretching over an area of 20,256 sq km. It borders: Hungary (North East): 102 km; Austria (North): 330 km; Croatia (South, South-East): 670 km; Italy (West): 232 km. The Adriatic Sea is a small portion (47km), near Trieste.
Slovenia’s landscape is mostly mountainous. In the north is a sector of the Alps (with 145 peaks over 2,000 m, of which 31 exceed 2500 m), respectively Karawanken Alps (2558 m Peak Grintavec) between the Drava and Sava rivers, Julian Alps (2864 m Peak Veliki Triglav highest in the country). Ljubljana and central Slovenia includes Celje depression, which continues to the south with a limestone region, belonging to the Dinaric Alps, looking for the most part of the plateau. Plateau Karst has specific forms required by the rich: caves, holes, poles, caves (including Postojna, one of the largest and most visited in Europe), courses, groundwater, intermittent streams, gorges, who studied for the first time in the world here, were called karst.
Dolenjska is a region in south-eastern Slovenia, which extends from Ljubljana to the border with Croatia (Gorjanci). On the eastern side is bordered by the Sava, extending to the west and Kolpa Bloke. Gorenjska is a mountainous area located in northern and north-west of Ljubljana, between Karavanke, the western and eastern Alps Kamniško-Savinjska Julian Alps. The largest cities are on the extent to Kranj Tržic, Škofja Loka, Kamnik and Domžale. Notranjska – Located in the south-west of the country, Notranjska is known for its numerous caves. Most of them are located in the Karst plateau. The structure within limestone rocks and shelves up to the altitude of 1700 m, forming a landscape with different landscape, closed depressions, sinkholes and poles, where water enters groundwater creating huge networks.
Over time, the action of water had a multitude of passages and tunnels. The best known are Postonjska Cave (home to rare animal called Cloveška ribica “or” Olm “) and Škocjanske cave. Primorska is divided into two parts: north and south, and is of particular importance in the economy, the only region with the Adriatic Sea. The main port is Koper. Unlike other residents of this area earn their living from fishing and tourism. Prekmurje and was named after the river Mura. The region is flat and promotes agriculture. The two cities are power poles Murska Sobota and Lendava. The region covers an area of 1,000 sq km, almost 90,000 people occupying it. In addition to the Slovenian population is formed by the Hungarian minority.
Koroškem is an area made up of three valleys (Meziška, Dravska and Mislinja) and three mountain ranges (Alps, Pohorje, Karavanke Savinjska). It has almost 74,000 inhabitants on an area of 1,000 sq km. Major cities are Koroškem, Slovenj, Gradec and Ardor with approximately 8,000 inhabitants. The region is rich in natural resources and tourism is developed, however, with the sights and Raduha Peca. Štajerksa is the region with the richest culture in Slovenia. Doielea is the largest city in the country, Maribor, and some smaller cities such as Celje, Ptuj, Velenje. Štajerksa are largely forested and hilly terrain. In 1180 the region was raised to the status of county. Among the personalities who have lived there are noted Anthony Martin, who had a major contribution to the spread of language by writing more books.
Lakes are the largest natural wealth of Slovenia. Most of the lakes can be found in the west and northwest. They include Lake Triglav, Lake Bled and Lake Bohinj and Lake Cernika. Lake Bled is the name of a glacial origin of the Julian Alps, which has acquired the name after the city based on its bank. The lake is surrounded by mountains and forests. In its midst is a small island where was raised a church dedicated to St. Mary. Lake Bohinj – Set in a nature reserve Triglav, Julian Alps in the middle of Lake Bohinj occupies an area of 6 sq km. It is the largest permanent lake in Slovenia. Triglav Lakes Valley – looks rocky and is located in the Julian Alps. The Valley comprises seven lakes formed in karst areas.
National Park Triglav – the idea dates from 1908, but was done in 1924, when Slovenia became the fifth country in Europe to have a national park. The aim was to create a nature reserve. The park is located in the northwest and covers 83,807 ha of Julian Alps. The reserve is rich in flora and fauna, protecting rare species, which are still the subject of botanists. The Park name was given after the name of the highest mountain, Triglav (2864 m), near the center of the park. Triglav Peak is a symbol of Slovenia and was represented on the flag of the country. In Slovenia Triglav means “Three Peaks.” The origin of its name has not been established, describing the shape of Mount Triglav valley viewed from the Bohinj or bearing the name of a Slavic god. The mountain was first climbed on 25 August 1778.11