Travel Guides: Spain
Spain is the land where the golden apples of Hercules grew and also the land which was considered the Heaven on Earth by the Arabs and by the writers George Orwell and Ernest Hemingway Spain was an arena where were the crossroads between history and tragedy of heroic deeds, when toreadors defied death.
Of all time, Spain has remained a country with mysteries. Unique beauty and its privileged geographical location, between Europe and Africa, have made this country since antiquity a crossroad, a meeting point between east and west. Cultural diversity, the mix of civilizations that have found a great place, they left behind a unique original culture, an admirable experiment. Spain, so often conquered, but eventually a winner, managed to gather its remains, in a modern country, whose inhabitants, proud of their past, decided to accept future challenges. Spain is a varied and very different country: Northern wet and green, plains in the center, sparsely populated, fertile Mediterranean coastline and shiny.
South (Andalusia), famous, dry and hot, bright as the painted white houses, two archipelagos, the Balearic and Canary Islands, the two sisters that are quite different. You will find a network of hotels, guesthouses and rural houses, all with outstanding services tailored to the requirements of various categories of tourists. A holiday in Spain is more than the bull-fights, flamenco, fiesta and crowded beaches, because Spain is a spectacular country at every turn. The offer holiday in Spain is accessible to all budgets and all tastes and you will just have to choose what suits you best. An art history that reflects the uniqueness of the Spanish autonomous regions that make up the nation, a harmony of three cultures (Christian, Muslim and Jewish), Spain proves to be always an excellent choice.
Spain is considered the third most favorite tourist destination in the world. If you want to be convinced of that, each region will invite you by its charm and beauty. Spain is a country full of mysteries. If there is one England and one France, Spain is not just one. And there were several Roman Spain and its many facets are still evident in its well-defined regions. Castilians are the majority and continue to dominate, but you’d better be informed about the origin of Spanish before doing business with them. Galician are practical and with melancholy, with some common north roots. The Aragonese stubborn perseverance finds an echo in Finnish (sisu). Basques have a talent for industrial and commercial activities and, together with Finns, Hungarians and Estonians have a different origin of the Indo-Europeans.
Catalans have, as well as Northern people, the cult of efficiency, being oriented towards France rather than to Spain. On the other hand, they have little in common with the other two regions: Asturias, where people are extremely arrogant and Andalusia, where all are speakers and schedules are not met. Castilians are essentially Latin, and for many centuries, were the defenders of the Roman heritage, maintaining linguistic and literary monuments, and traditions of conquest and empire. Latin features, evident in Castile, are excessive and eloquent verbal flow. Confronted with such a record rate and eternal romantic picture, so dear to the Spaniards, northern people will not feel too comfortable. Proud of their history and pure origins, soul Castilians are some fighters, some mystical, and some unrealistic individualists who reached their moment of grace during the conquistadors, but have not been able to organize their own empire.
Brits and Americans can admire the individualism of Castilian, a trait they have in common but in Spain, individualism has led to rebellion against authority and against the system and even disdain for government. In the south of the country, the climate of apathy and inertia torrid worsens when it comes to implementing laws and regulations. In Spain, poverty is seen as noble as welfare. The beggars are well treated; the poor and needy are respected and observed by innate aristocracy and the most humble. Personal dignity must be preserved even when all others are lost. Time, money and caution have a secondary importance. If to the pragmatic northern it hard to swallow it, will be even more amazed by the Castilian fatalism. Why should we be concerned about our fate? Can ask a Castilian; what is happening now has happened before and it surely will happen again.
Although full of energy when they include exuberant fever in their moments of action or profound visionary, Spaniards are not too crazy about the routine and mundane tasks such as consolidation and coordination. Tomorrow is another day and if they do not succeed, no one can change that. The Germans, who have little time for fatalism, are considered masters of their own destiny and do not like that attitude. We could insist on saying that facts are things that require effort, but the Spaniards say things are not what they seem. It is a double reality, the right detail and the whole poetic. The second is more important to Castilian, as it offers a vision of faith or life. People need to realize the futility of material ambitions.
By analyzing these concepts and credo of the Spanish sites, we are quite clear that the Spaniards and Northern people have totally different perceptions of reality. Dialogue between the two peoples will never be easy. A grandiloquent orator, and also a romantic convinced periphrastic addresses a passive listener and a pragmatic taciturn. There will be probably a language barrier. However, in the business world, the dialogue must take place. There are some links between the Spanish and northern culture. Castille is a barren land with extreme cold and heat variations. Harsh climate and landscape has led to the austerity of Castile and they learned with it, thing we can not say about the northern people. Although Spain is a land of rich and poor alike, Brits, Scandinavians and Americans can guess egalitarians in the protection shown by a Spanish version of the underprivileged of this country’s own democracy.
Those who want to do business with the Spaniards must first accept that with some people they will not act the same as their scale of values is quite far from the modern era. Like others, they buy, sell and are friendly but watch you in a manner antiquated, seemingly more interested in you than the offer. You have to show that you have a heart and not take everything seriously. The Northern have a big heart, but often also a great skill to hide. When talking with the Spaniards you must have a flickering in the eye. In its comfortable distance is smaller than most Europeans, agreeing both physical contact and on the visual. They are more robust than the French, Italians and Portuguese are the hardest practice of the Latin. Macho is a Spanish word, a word of masculinity, a fundamental characteristic of northern businessmen.
Nordic Business Women get along well with Spanish men, because they favor their relative aggressiveness. Spaniards are very human. When you have a conversation with them is good to give up some tendencies of indifference, to forget the pressure of time, to accept that in your country still are still done some nasty things, they confess to some, more intimate, sins and transgressions, to put them a few questions more personal, to drink with them until 3 am and generally relax. When you relax in the company of Spaniards, do not forget that they are sensitive and are easily attacked. You can laugh as the French and Germans crave, you can even critic Spanish habits, such as naps or bullfighting, but in any case not say anything that could be interpreted as an attack on their personal honor or dignity.
For many Spaniards, pundonor (honor) is the most important word. They may be poor, but noble. Maybe they were imprisoned, but are honest. If they can not be punctual, thay can be loyal. Maybe you owe money, but surely you will pay when they can. Even if they have failed they can not be humiliated. Like the Japanese or Chinese, are not allowed to embarrass. Respect for the dignity of the Spaniards, their personal qualities and attention to the human condition showed respect, their personality and soul is the key for cooperation, alliance and affection. They will respond on the whole, if you ask a Castilian loyalty, he will be your best friend. If they buy your company and your products will send Christmas cards for 25 years. It is able to lie and sometimes even die for you. They are men of honor.
Spain’s core territory is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges as the Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada. From these mountains, several major rivers spring, such as the Tagus, Ebro, Duero, Guadiana and Guadalquivir. Along the coast there are alluvial plains, of which the largest is the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Spain is bordered to the east by the Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), Atlantic Ocean to the west, where there are, on the African coast, the Canary Islands. Spain’s climate is primarily temperate and Mediterranean; summers are warm inside, rather moderate and cloudy conditions on the coast. Winters are cloudy and cold in the interior, the coastal regions being relatively temperate.
Spain is situated in south-western Europe, forming part, together with Portugal and Gibraltar from the Iberian Peninsula. In the north it borders with Andorra and France (along the Pyrenees Mountains) and Bizacaya Bay, east – with great Mediterranean, west – the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean south. Spain has a total surface of 504782 km², of which 499574 km² is land area and the rest of 5240 km² is water. It is good to know that Spain has not only territory in the Iberian peninsula, but also the Mediterranean (Balearic Islands: Ibiza, Mallorca, Menorca and Formentera) in the Atlantic Ocean on the African coast (Canary Islands, from north to south: Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro) and two African Mediterranean coast cities (Ceuta and Melilla).
Spain’s climate is temperate in the north, dry and hot in South Island enjoying a temperate Mediterranean climate with moderate summer temperatures and mild winters of drought. Spain is made up of 17 autonomous communities divided into provinces of Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Cantabria, Castilla – La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Catalonia, Extremaduara, Galicia, the Balearic Islands Canaraua, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Basque Country and Valencia. The population of Spain is composed of Spanish, Catalan, Basque and Galician (population born in Spain), but also from other ethnic groups such as those of immigrants. As is known in Castellon (province Valencian Community), there is the largest community of Romanians. Spain has predominantly Catholic population (94%).
In Spain, are spoken four languages: Castellano (Spanish), Catalan (in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia Community), Basque (the Basque Country) and Galician (in Galicia autonomous community located in north-western Spain). Catalan, Galician and Castilian, more commonly known as “Spanish”, are descendants of the Latin language and have their own dialects, there are also other Romance dialects, as well as or Babli Asturian in Asturias and parts of León, Aragonese in part of Aragon And araneza (gascono-Occitan variant) in the Val d’Aran in northwest Catalonia. Spanish spoken in America is the descendant of the Spanish dialect spoken in southwestern Spain.
The number of immigrants in Spain has exploded in the last ten years, rising from 500,000 in 1996 to 4.5 million in 2008 to a population of 45 million. During this period, the country has experienced strong economic growth.
It is enough to remember the architects Gaudí or the painters Picasso, Dalí, Velázquez to realize the cultural value of Spain. Here are just some of the names of some famous Spanish writers: Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (author of the famous Don Quixote), Federico García Lorca, Miguel de Unamuno, Camilo Jose Cela and the list could go on forever. Spain is a European Union member. After the end of the Franco regime in 1975, Spain became a monarchy and a constitutional monarchy in 1978 when a new constitution was adopted. The name “Spain” is derived from “Hispania”, the Latin name that the Romans referred to the whole peninsula, and they have taken from the Greek “Hispania” used by Artemide in Ephesus, author of the earliest maps of the West, which describes in detail the Roman Hispania.
Origin of “Hispania” is attributed to the Phoenicians, the first non-Iberian civilization, which reached the peninsula to expand trade and founded, among, the oldest living city in the West. In their Punic language they called it “Isephanim”, “Coast of rabbits.” Rabbits were found and are still found in abundance in Andalusia, and some coins were minted in Hadrian’s time as a lady sitting, with a rabbit at her feet. From the ninth century BC, Celts, Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians entered the Iberian Peninsula, followed by the Roman Republic, which came in the second century BC. Now the Spanish language, religion and legal system from the Roman era lasted. Conquered by the Visigoths in the fifth century AC and attacked several times in the 711 by Islamic North African Moors, modern Spain began to form after the Reconquista, the efforts to eliminate the Moors, who remained there until 1492.
In 1478 Queen Elizabeth I of Castile strengthened Spanish Inquisition, an institution prohibited until 1834, during the reign of Elizabeth II. In 1492 it was financed the first Atlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus, to the “New World”. By 1512, the unification of Spain was complete. However, the project of Castilian monarchs was to unify all Iberia and this dream seemed almost completed, when Philip II became King of Portugal in 1580, and of the other Iberian Kingdoms. In 1640, police centralist Count of Olivares provoked wars in Portugal and Catalonia: Portugal became an independent kingdom again and Catalonia enjoyed independence, assisted by France, but briefly. In the sixteenth century, Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe, because of the welfare derived from the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
But a series of long and costly wars and revolts began a steady decline of Spanish power in Europe. Controversy over succession to the throne consumed the country in the eighteenth century, the occupation of France during the Napoleonic era in the early 1800s, and led a series of armed conflicts and revolts between Liberals and supporters of the Old Regime in much of the nineteenth century, a century that represented the loss of most of the Spanish colonies in the Americas; Spanish-American War ended in 1898. Twentieth century initially brought little peace; colonization of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea has been proven as a substitute for the loss of the Americas. A period of dictatorship (1923-1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. The increase of political polarization, combined with increasing unchecked violence, led to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936.
Following the victory of the nationalist forces in 1939, General Francisco Franco led a nation exhausted politically and economically. However, in the 1960s and 1970s, Spain was gradually transformed into a modern industrial economy with a growing tourism sector. After the death of Dictator General Franco in November 1975, his designated successor, Prince Juan Carlos assumed the titles of king and head of state. He played an important role in guiding Spain to a modern democratic state, especially in opposing an attempted coup d’etat in 1981. Spain joined NATO in 1982 and joined the European Union in 1986. After Franco’s death, the old historic nationalities – Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia – were given greater autonomy, which was extended to all Spanish regions.
Iberian Peninsula had already gone through a long history of human habitation at the end of the third century BC. When the Romans subdued the Celts, Iberians and Basques lived here. The region remained an area until the Visigoths invaded Roman site in the early fifth century. Over the next three centuries, the region became a Christian site, but in 711 an invasion of southern Morocco has been the foundation of what was to be a flourishing Islamic civilization, which lasted for six centuries. Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a hereditary monarchy with a bicameral parliament, the Cortes or National Assembly. The executive consists of a Council of Ministers chaired by the Government (similar to a prime minister), proposed by the monarch and elected by National Assembly after legislative elections.
The legislative power shall consist of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation, intended to serve for four years and a Senate or Senado with 259 seats of which of 208 directly elected by popular vote and 51 others sent by the regional legislatures to also serve for four years. In 2003, Spain discussed with the United Kingdom about Gibraltar, a tiny peninsula that has changed owner during the War of Spanish Succession in 1714. Discussions included sharing sovereignty over the peninsula, the subject of a constitutional referendum of those from Gibraltar who have expressed opposition to any act of allegiance to Spain.
Spain is currently self-rule, formally unitary but, in fact, operating as a federation of autonomous communities, each with different powers and laws (some have their own educational and health systems, others not). There are some problems with this system, since some autonomous governments (those dominated by nationalist parties) seek a more federalist kind of relationship with Spain, while the central government tries to curb what some see as excessive autonomy of communities autonomous (the Basque Country and Catalonia).
Terrorism is a problem in today’s Spain, since the Basque Land and Freedom is trying to win Basque independence through violent means, including use of bombs and murders. Although Basque Autonomous government does not assist such violence, the different approaches to the problem are a source of tension between central and Basque governments. Spain is composed of 17 autonomous communities (Comunidades Autónomas); Andalusia (Andalucía); Aragon (Aragon); Asturias (Principado de Asturias); Balearic Islands (Islas Baleares / Illes Balears); Basque Country (Pais Vasco / Euskadi); Canary Islands (Islas Canarias); Cantabria; Castile-La Mancha (Castilla-La Mancha); Castile-Leon (Castilla y León); Catalonia (Cataluña / Catalunya); Extremadura; Galicia; Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid); Murcia (Región de Murcia); Navarra (Comunidad Foral de Navarra / Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea); Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana / Valencia communities); La Rioja.
There are five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and near the African coast: the cities of Ceuta and Melilla are administered as autonomous cities, an intermediate status between cities and communities of the archipelago islands Islas Chafarinas, Peñón of Alhucemas and Vélez Peñón of de la Gomera are under direct Spanish administration. In Spain, CO2 emissions have increased since 1996 when the index rose, and Spain failed to comply with the Kyoto Protocol in relation to emissions of greenhouse gases. Reports about the environment have occurred due to United Nations recommendations.
Spain is affected by the phenomenon of widening drought between 1880 and 2000, more than half of those years being very dry. In the 80s, seven years have been designated as dry or very dry, and in the 90s, five years received the same grade.
Spain’s mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 80% that of western European economies. Its center-right government has worked successfully to gain accession to the first group of countries launching the European single currency on January 1, 1999. Jose Maria Aznar’s government continued to support liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and introduced some tax reforms. Unemployment dropped visibly under Aznar administration but remains one of the highest rates in the European Union at 13%. The government is trying to make further progress in changing labor laws and reforming pension schemes, which are keys to supporting the advancement of both the domestic economy of Spain and external competitiveness in an environment with a single currency.
Spain is the second tourist destination in the world and has 47 airports. It is in the 3rd place in Europe and 7th in the world in terms of mechanical engineering. Over 82% of vehicles produced in Spain are exported to over 90 countries. In the fourth quarter of 2008, Spain’s economy has contracted by 1% and entered into the deepest recession since 1993. Throughout 2008, the economy contracted by 0.7% compared to 2007. The word “Spain” and its derivatives are always loaded with symbols: Flamenco music and dance, bullfights, sangria (Spanish specific beverage) Turrón, Churros and paella (gastronomic specialties), Holy Week processions in Seville, Las Fallas in Valencia, San Fermin Festival in Pamplona. In Spain there are 298 state hospitals and 450 private hospitals. Foreign Relations: On the commercial view, Spain is the 8th most important state of EU member countries.
There are 52 subsidiary companies and joint Hungarian-Spanish trade (many of which are newly established – micro enterprises). Total Spanish capital asset is approximately 50 million USD. Between climate of mountainous regions, the beachfront and at the center of the country differences can be observed in regions of the seaside climate is less extreme, while the limited areas of the Atlantic Ocean have a poly climate. Madrid’s average temperature in July is 30° and 8° C in February. Time: CET + 1 hour in winter, CET + 2 hours in summer. Currency: the Euro was introduced January 1, 2002, 1 Euro = 166.386 Peseta.
Language: The official language is Castilian Spanish. In some autonomous communities like Catalonia, Calicut, Valencia and the Basque territory the majority of the population speaks local languages in those regions considered official, but they are very different from Castilian Spanish. Religion: 95% of the population is Roman Catholics. Catholicism is the dominant religion in Spain. A percentage of 94% of the population is Catholic, according to a study by the Center for Social Investigations conducted in 2005. As Catholics, other religious minorities represent only 6% of the population. After the number of members, the second is the Muslim religion. The data show that 800,000 people are Islam. Follow the Jehovah’s Witnesses, with 103,784 faithful. There is also a Protestant community which has about 50,000 members. Also, live in Spain about 20,000 Mormons. Jewish community does not exceed 15,000 members.
Tourism in Spain was developed during the last years of Francisco Franco’s dictatorship, when the country became a popular place for summer holidays, especially for tourists from the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia. Since then Spain has been the second most visited country in the world after France. In 2007 nearly 60 million foreign tourists visited Spain, according to World Tourism Organization, based in Madrid. Culture of Spain: Famous Spanish, Spanish Literature, Spanish cuisine, Spanish Football, bull-fights. Famous footballers: Fernando Torres, David Villa, Capdevila, Iker Cassilas, Carles Puyol, Sergio Ramos, Xavi, Andres Iniesta, Marcos Senna, Jesus Navas, Raul.
Population density: 79 pers/sq km; Composition of population: 14.4% 0-14 years, 68% 15-64 years, 17.6% over 65 years; Population growth: 0.15%. Birth ratio: 10.1 births/1.000 people; Mortality ratio: 9.63 deaths/1.000 people; Newborn mortality ratio: 4.42 deaths/1.000 births; Life expectancy – in general: 79.52 years, Female: 83.03 years, Male: 76.18 years; Unemployment ratio: 10.4%. Spain was a world power in 16th and 17th centuries, and then losing in favor of England’s maritime supremacy. Failed attempts of industrialization of the country have caused the decline of Spain as a world political and economic power, after Britain, France and Germany. Spain remained neutral in the two world wars, but suffered a devastating civil war (1936-1939).
In the second half of the 20th century, Spain has played an important role in the international community and Western entered the EU in 1986. One major issue is Spain’s Liberation Organization terrorist activity Basque Country (ETA). Surface: Total: 504,782 sq km; Land: 499,542 sq km; Water: 5240 km. Extreme points: The deepest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m, Highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m. Independence Day: October 12. Means of communication – Telephones: 17.336 million (1999), Mobile: 8.394 million (1999), TV stations: 224, Internet country code: .es, Internet users: 7.89 million (2002 estimate), Airports: 152 (2002 estimate).
Spain is the second most popular country for tourists in the world after France, with 60 million visitors per year (2007). The most popular destinations are the cities of Madrid and Barcelona, plus the cities of Cordoba, Seville, Granada and Malaga in Andalusia. In other parts of the country, Toledo, Salamanca and Santiago de Compostela are visited. Spain is a popular summer destination, with Valencia, the Canary and Balearic Islands are much visited.
The originality of Spain is due to the recently and very quickly leaving the stage of spectacular international tourism. Before the years 1960-1970 was not only frequented by a handful of visitors, visitors per year 200-300000 in the years 1930-1934, attracted mainly by the urban and cultural tourism in Catalonia, Madrid and Andalusia and notby the maritime beaches. Then after a long interruption caused by civil war, Second World War and a period of seclusion of own fascist regime Spain opens foreign demand with a variety of tourist virginity, success factors and difficulties at the same time. Gradually the number of tourists has become greater, prompting a real shift in the economy and Spanish society. In 1950-1986, while the total foreign tourist arrivals at its borders multiplied by 60, three successive stages appeared with different rates.
The explosive phase, until 1965, with enormous growth from one year to another, in 15 years, total inflows increased 19 times; a consolidation phase, between 1965 and 1973, the multiplication index was 2.5 and the more reasonable annual increases, a phase of uncertainty, consecutive global crisis that began in 1973-1974, with an index multiplier of 1.4 between 1973 and 1986 only as a result of alternating the kickback and recovery, sometimes dramatic, as in 1986. In 1986 total foreign visitors was 47.3 million, of which almost 29 million tourists stayed at a hotel and the capacity has increased proportionally, reaching 845,000 beds in 1985, where 400,000 jobs were added in camping sites. In 1995, Spain has registered 43.2 million foreign tourists, the hotel capacity increased to 1,180,220 numbers of beds in hotels and similar units.
Spain seeks to develop cultural tourism, helping the inner races and areas. Barcelona Olympics as the World Exhibition in Seville have generated increases in tourist flows. Specifically it is that Spain was a great success which led to the first destination for holidays for European customers, success of this spectacular development is determined by proximity to areas of origin of tourists, landscapes, rivers, attractive climate, historical and cultural, political, social and economic. In this structure, three elements have played an essential role.
The will of the regime of General Franco to revalue the country’s external image, to open up to foreign countries and to diversify the economic base of development, after a long period of isolation; a legal system very different interventions and investments in favor of entrepreneurs and foreign individuals, for transportation, organization of trips, and hotel sector, as well as for making and buying real estate areas in Germany, Strauss exempt from tax law, between 1968 and 1973, real estate investments made in Spain with the title of Third World aid. The appeal of the favorable currency exchange was made for foreign visitors in the first two decades, through lower prices than in their country of residence, both for land and property acquisitions and construction costs, benefits and travel daily consumption.
In 35 years, from 1950 to 1985, international tourism has brought Spain 80 billion gross revenue, which represents more than 70 billion net balance. There were offset losses caused by war, which has brought international tourism hub of Spain between 1950 and 1970 a sum equivalent to four times the amount affected all of Europe through the Marshall Plan, of which Spain was ruled by tourism purposes plating abroad have not only developed very slowly and very late, and Spain enjoyed a tourism balance which has propelled the country as a world leader with a level of approximately 800% coverage. Total interest income obtained in 1986 is equivalent to 145% of the deficit.
This percentage fluctuated sharply in recent years, both as a variation of interest, as the general business fluctuations, but remained between 1964 and 1984 in a 40-90% margin. The short-term economic program for the period 1984-1987 clearly states that tourism activity is capable, alone, to neutralize the situation due to a negative balance profoundly unbalanced trade and therefore recommends to encourage its development. Tourism has become a major exporter, supplying in 1984, 36% of the total income of Spanish sales abroad. Moreover, these direct sales of foreign tourists, even in the country, the locally produced goods are more remuneration than exports following the traditional commercial channels.
Sales of many objects with obvious national or regional character, the articles of clothing, handicraft products which were exported hard and, in many cases, lower export or heavily burdened by duty, touch, thanks to tourism, were in high volume. Then was the purchase of goods, tourists consuming considerable amounts of food and beverage product, which sometimes exceed exports. Wine consumes by foreigners in several Mediterranean countries and especially in Spain, reaches a significant level, exceeding exports. If case of goods for which there is a rigid or slightly elastic production and strong demand from visitors the seller will neglect export to profit from sales made inside.
He will pay more attention to the domestic market for two reasons: domestic sales allow outweigh the benefits derived from exports, and then effectual operations within national borders are easy to do and less risky. In the internal sale, distribution and commission the benefit of commercial entities rather than stay in the country is earning foreign trade, if they were exported. More must be taken into account the multiplier effects arising from the sale on the domestic market and benefiting the entire economy. In a situation such as a rigid offer followed by simultaneous request from domestic buyers, on the one hand and foreign market, on the other hand, is in the interest of the country to be sold inside.
Thus the mechanisms described are fundamental to assess the actual and occult foreign tourist consumption. They are valid for all countries receiving as a reserve: derivatives and multiplier effects are very small if it is necessary to rely on imports to produce goods and services sold to tourists, is one of the major problems of tourism development in countries of the third World. In Spain, external interest income is the equivalent of about 4% of GDP, while the sector as a whole, nationally and internationally, combined, account for more than 11% to the GDP. After various assessments, taking into account the indirect jobs, tourism deal between 9 and 11% of the active population, with a total estimated at 1.1-1.2 million jobs, of which 70% percent are widely directly exceeded.
This high concentration of tourism in regions where socio-economic structures have been severely affected and reshaped: thus, 60% of the Balearic Islands regional product comes from tourism, a significant impact is observed also in the Canary Islands on the Costa Brava Catalan Costa del Sol or Adaluza. International tourism development risks the dependency. Tourism was unquestionably a factor of collective and individual enrichment, with economic diversification, equipment and recovery planning, to promote its international market. But without falling into virulent criticism we must acknowledge that it has its reversal or tokens that can be described as a double dependence.
First of all the environment is highly disturbed. There is, above all, the situation of excessive dependence on foreign tourism to the numerous sea beaches and the corresponding island regions. This monopolizes 86% of the national accommodation capacity and 85% of total overnights national and international, most of which is sweeping the Mediterranean facade in these areas. In serious violations of the natural environment through a common tourist concentrated in time, available space was arranged in emergency spending, privatized and urbanized without precautions, so that the places have disturbed the traditional activity, sometimes to the exclusion permanent, particularly the case in the Andalusia coast and Canary Islands, where the regional economy, already fragile, was asphyxiated by the “tourist monoculture” and where it emptied into profit within the coastal zone; the situation is less bleak in the Catalan seaside resorts, where some economic activity, far from disappearing, have been upgraded.
Secondly, tourism activity is available for multinational firms. This dependence, which first came to overlap in these regions, is seen by comparison with more developed countries. Providing the bulk of the incoming flow (85% come from Europe) the industrial countries of Europe, initially faced with an offer Spanish insufficient unorganized and have attributed a significant part of the decision and operation, when not reserved their particular spaces. The role of the multinational firms is mainly in three classic levels, making them susceptible and economically vulnerable.
Transport level: 70% of passengers are transported by air entering the flight charters on demand by companies which, at a rate of 82%, are foreign; the level of production (supply) of excursions: 13 large European tourist companies, all foreign, controls more than half of the tourist market to Spain with those “tour-operators” Germans and headed by Britain; the receipt: the key areas of tourism real estate sector, the share of promoters and foreign buyers is significant and often dominant. Costa del Sol, where Spanish developers have done, for example, only 18% of urbanization prestigious resort Marbelle and where foreign investors control 49% of all dwellings, 84% of the pavilions and private cabins, private pools 80%, 52% of the land of Mijas village and 24% of commercial activities.
Spanish companies and national operators have been absent and inert in the national tourism development. They were involved, simply later, without ever ruling may reserve positions, which would have made the sector less vulnerable to external decisions: with a range of shades and, especially, the incomparable advantages kept the position, in proximity of emitting countries, Spain reflects this phenomenon of subordination and fragile to be found, more extensive and more serious in developing countries.
Spain is the perfect destination for adventurous palates, but also for art lovers. The centuries-old festivals entertainment offered by the island of Ibiza and Moorish art and architecture and Roman to Picasso and Juan Miro, travelers are given a unique diversity. Spain is a country in constant transformation – high-speed railways have conquered the country’s mountainous terrain and large cities are equipped with modern railroads and subways, which confirms the economy. But with modernity we will find lands where time seems to stand still, where Roman columns rise into the blue sky and the ruins of Arab tower guard vigil vast landscape.
Geographical diversity may surprise tourists identify beaches of Spain and coastal tourism. In this country you will find everything from plains and green valleys, hills and snowy mountains in the north, in regions close to the desert in the south. In parts of southern and western beaches of white sand awaits you, and in the Canary Islands you will find the volcanic black sand beaches. Every year millions of tourists come to Spain; the country became one of the most important tourist destinations in third place in popularity in Europe.
The most popular destination in Spain is Madrid, a city that seems to never sleep. With a central location, Madrid has an excellent communications network with provincial areas. Barcelona is probably a favorite tourist destination, famous for its impressive architecture of the architect Gaudi, beaches and cosmopolitan atmosphere and water sports.